Manifest Destiny

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STUDY GUIDE: UNIT 5 – CIVIL WAR ERA NAME : FOCUS/PURPOSE : SECTIONALISM 5.1: EXPLAIN THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF WESTERN EXPANSION DURING THE 1830s AND 1840s . Key Concept: The United States became more connected with the world, pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere, and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries. ( Themes: Migration, Geography, America in the World, Society, Identity ) I. Popular enthusiasm for U.S. expansion , bolstered by economic and security interests , resulted in the acquisition of new territories , substantial migration westward , and new overseas initiatives . A. The desire for accessto natural and mineral resources and the hopeof many settlers for economic opportunities or religious refuge led to an increased migration to and settlement in the West . B. Advocates of annexing western lands argued that Manifest Destiny and the superiority of American institutions compelled the United States to expand its borders westwardto the Pacific Ocean. WESTWARD EXPANSION: MOVING WEST (AMSCO Ch 12, See link for Pageant) 1-8 Due Wed 11/20 Example Definition/Description Significance to the Thesis 1. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny, a phrase coined in 1845, expressed the philosophy that drove 19th-century U.S. territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny held that the United States was destined—by God, its advocates believed—to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across the entire North American continent. Manifest Destiny summary: In the 19th century US, Manifest Destiny was a belief that was widely held that the destiny of American settlers was to expand and move across the continent to spread their traditions and their institutions, while at the same time enlightening more primitive nations 2. Oregon: Overland Trails & Oregon Fever The Oregon Trail was a major route that people took when migrating to the western part of the United States. Between 1841 and 1869, hundreds of thousands of people traveled westward on the trail. Many of them traveled in large wagon trains using covered wagons to carry their belongings. About that time “Oregon fever” set in, a result of the panic of 1837 and the attractiveness of rich farmland that could be cultivated year-round. One campaign slogan among expansionists in the 1844 election had been “54-40 or fight,” meaning that America wanted the entire Oregon territory for itself. 3. Oregon: Dispute w/ Britain & Polk The treaty was signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing for American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818. The 1846 Oregon Treaty established the border between British North America and the United States along the 49th parallel until the Strait of Georgia, where the marine boundary curved south to exclude Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands from the United States. 4. Texas: Stephen Austin & Settlement/Friction

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