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PGS101 Class Notes

PGS101 Class Notes - PGS101 Class Notes August 31st 2009...

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PGS101 Class Notes August 31 st , 2009 Quantitative Research: Descriptive – Used to learn descriptive information about a group or event by means of records, surveys, interviews, and observations Correlational - Used to investigate possible relationships by measuring both or all subjects; does not explain why it happened, just if there is a relationship Experimental – Used when you wish to draw cause and effect conclusions through the manipulation of a variable under controlled conditions o Independent variables (IVs) – The variable the experiment manipulates o Dependent variables (DVs) – The outcome thought to be affected by the IV o Experimental group – Gets the IV o Control group – Doesn’t get the IV o Identifying DVs and IVs: The IV causes the DV Correlation Coefficient = R -1.00 ≤ R ≤ 1.00 Tells if there is a positive or negative relationship, and the strength of the relationship September 2 nd , 2009 Theory: People will be less likely to steal if the lights in the store are fluorescent (as opposed to lights that leave shadows and dark areas) IV: Fluorescent lighting DV: Stealing Theory: Smokers will smoke less if they are given something else to do with their hands IV: Something to do with their hands DV: Smoking Confederate – Working as part of the study; may look and act like participants More than on DV in an experiment: Efficient, no extra work, more results More than on IV in an experiment: To know what happens when you do more than one thing at a time Nitrates N Y N - ^ Y ^ x Theory: Smoking causes lung cancer even when people eat a healthy diet DV: Lung cancer To be a true experiment, you must: Manipulate the IV while controlling everything else Randomly assign participants into groups Viagra
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Experiments: Cause, lead to, result in, affects, reduces, increases, etc. Correlational Research: Relationships, related, linked, associated, etc. Descriptive Research: Describe, demographics, composition, etc. Qualitative Survey: Opinions, attitudes (make sure to not have too personal of questions) Natural Observation: Public behaviour Case Study: Unusual or infrequent behaviour You want to investigate whether people’s attitudes about war and their attitudes about general violence are related – Correlational research You want to investigate how people feel about our presidential candidates – Qualitative survey You want to investigate whether or not lab assignments increase grades – Experiment Significance Testing of Comparative Data: Compare 2 or more group means Significantly different or just due to chance? P-Value (Probability results happened by chance; P < .05 = significant difference, P > .10 = not significant, .05 < P < .10 = Marginally significant – withhold judgment and collect more data): Group means Group variability n (number of subjects per group) N (total number of subjects in experiment) Things that can go wrong and how to protect from them:
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PGS101 Class Notes - PGS101 Class Notes August 31st 2009...

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