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PGS101 Exam 1 Study Guide

PGS101 Exam 1 Study Guide - PGS101 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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PGS101 Exam 1 Study Guide Precursors to Psychology – Philosophy and physiology; Psychology’s “birth date” 1879 Wundt – Founder of psychology; Established/produced first journal for psychology research G. Stanley Hall – Established USA’s first psychology lab at John Hopkins University; first US psychology journal’ helped drive for APA – first president of APA Titchner - Structuralism James – Functionalism; wrote Principles of Psychology, the most influential text in the history of psychology Watson – Behaviorism; argued for verifiability Rogers – Humanistic; argued for “self concept” or an individual’s sense of self, which animals presumably lack; personal growth in humans Maslow – Humanistic Freud – Personality, dreams, and subconscious Structuralism – Psychology should analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Functionalism – Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness Behavioralism – Scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour Gestalt Psychology – Brain wants to form a whole; faces and vase image Psychoanalysis – An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference Humanistic Psychology – Humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals Biological Psychology – An organism’s functioning can be explained in terms of bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behaviour Evolutionary Psychology – Behaviour patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favours behaviours that enhance reproductive success Cognitive Revolution – Human behaviour cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process information Qualitative v. Quantitative Research: Qualitative – Explore; ask people their opinion, etc.
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Quantitative – Describe, compare, and test; numerical Qualitative survey – Questionnaires/interviews; used to explore peoples’ opinions/attitudes; careful questions equals truthful answers Natural observation – Research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the subjects Case Study – Unusual/infrequent phenomena through interviews, observation, records, testing; limitation - generalizability Descriptive research – Describe, demographics, composition, etc.; Used to learn descriptive information about a group or event by means of records, surveys, interviews, and observations Mean, median, mode, percentages Correlational research – Relationships, related, linked, associated, etc.; Used to investigate possible relationships by measuring both or all subjects; does not explain why it happened, just if there is a relationship Correlation coefficient – A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
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