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PGS101 Exam 3 Study Guide

PGS101 Exam 3 Study Guide - PGS101 Exam 3 Study Guide...

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PGS101 Exam 3 Study Guide DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH Mary Ainsworth – Studied infant bond development; put infants in ‘strange situation’ (any new environment for an infant) and had caretaker leave room: secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant Piaget – Pointed out stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations Erikson – Psychosocial model; default personality type is one or other (in name): Trust v. mistrust Autonomy v. shame/doubt Initiative v. guilt Industry v. inferiority Identity v. confusion Intimacy v. isolation Generativity v. self-absorption Integrity v. despair Marcia – Development of identity; first person to point out that teenagers experience a lot of stress when they are suddenly able to handle abstract thinking and are looking for an identity Crisis – Necessary for an individual to really develop a sense of identity Commitment Crisis No Crisis Yes Commitment No Identity Diffusion Identity Moratorium Commitment Yes Identity Foreclosure Identity Achievement Are infant’s need usually met? Yes – Secure No – Chile reacts with: Fear – Anxious-Ambivalent (overly-dependent) Defensiveness – Avoidant (overly-independent) Kohlberg – Most prominent moral development theory; no age ranges because people vary too much; stages (most people go through sequentially): Preconventional, conventional, Postconventional Prenatal development: 1. Germination – (0-2 weeks) Egg is fertilized by sperm resulting in zygote; characterized by rapid cell division; zygote implants on uterus wall and placenta forms 2. Embryonic Stage – (2-8 weeks) Embryo; characterized by development of body organs and systems; risk of miscarriage reduces significantly after this stage 3. Fetal Stage – (8 weeks – birth) Fetus; organs have developed and are functioning on their own; bone and muscle development; development of sex organs Infant attachment style development Secure – Quickly moved to toys, but kept eye on caretaker; when caretakers returned, easily comforted and showed high signs of trust by going back to playing with toys again Anxious-ambivalent – Very clingy (not easily comforted), most likely won’t go back and play with toys again
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Avoidant – Quickest to play with toys, very little if any checking up on caretaker; tend to ignore caretaker when they come back into room (because they’re angry) US vs Germany vs Japan infant attachments Secure Anxious-ambivalent Avoidant USA 67 12 21 Germany 35 13 52 Japan 68 32 0 Cognitive development: Sensorimotor period – (0-1 years) The brain is learning to coordinate sensory input and motor output; characterized by baby development of object permanence at some point during stage (no more peek-a-boo; out of sight is no longer out of world) Preoperational period – (2-7 years) Characterized by development of symbolic thought; can start to learn reading, language, math, etc.
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