PGS101 Final Exam Study Guide

PGS101 Final Exam Study Guide - PGS101 Final Exam Study...

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PGS101 Final Exam Study Guide Abnormal Psychology Thomas Szasz – Pointed out that people enforce their culture’s norms upon yourself; guidelines for disorders (must meet all three requirements): Outside of the norm Interferes with functioning Causes physical danger to anyone and/or patient personal distress Medical model – Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease; gradually became the dominant way of thinking about abnormal behaviour during the 18 th and 19 th centuries Diagnosis – Involves distinguishing one illness from another Prognosis – A forecast about the probable course of an illness Criteria: Deviance from what their society considers acceptable Maladaptive behaviour Personal distress DSM IV – Current edition Axis to be diagnosed on: I. Clinical syndromes – ‘Book’ disorders II. Personality disorders – Extreme personalities that interfere with functioning, etc. III. Medical conditions – Medical records; medication side effects? IV. Psychosocial problems – Recent traumas V. Global assessment of functioning – How well do you function in life? Anxiety disorders – Characterized by excessive apprehension: Generalized anxiety disorders – Anxiety all the time; not triggered by any specific action or thing Phobic disorder – Anxiety tied to a specific stimulus; irrational fears Panic disorder – Reoccurring attacks that are not linked to specific events or stimulus Agoraphobia – Fear of public places; difficult to treat because these people usually won’t leave home to seek out help Obsessive-compulsive disorder – Persistent, obtrusive thoughts that result in unnecessary rituals; fear of contamination is typically found in OCD patients Post-traumatic stress disorder – Enduring psychological disturbances after a major traumatic event; characterized by flashes, nightmares, high arousal, guilt, anxiety, etc.; symptoms usually occur months or years after event, but not typically right after Etiology of anxiety disorders – Links/relationships of anxiety (not the cause): Genetics – Concordance rate significantly higher in identical twins v. paternal twins; can be genetically predisposed for a disorder, but must be triggered by other stimuli Neurochemicals – Associated with decreases in GABA and serotonin Classical and operant conditioning – Classical conditioning manifests fear, operant
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conditioning maintains fear; rewarded for never dealing with fears (do not get disproving evidence against stimulus) Cognitive – Thought processes; negative interpretation Personality - Neuroticism Stress – Typically a trigger for disorders Somatoform disorders – Physical ailments with no organic basis: Somatization disorder – A history of diverse physical symptoms claimed by patient; usually go to many different doctors and complain about different things to each one Conversion disorder – Paralysis of one or more organ system in the body (left leg, right arm, etc.);
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PGS101 Final Exam Study Guide - PGS101 Final Exam Study...

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