Fall et al (2002) Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution Along the Jorda

Fall et al (2002) Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution Along the Jorda

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Unformatted text preview: Human Ecology, Vol. 30, No. 4, December 2002 ( C 2002) Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution Along the Jordan Rift Patricia L. Fall, 1,4 Steven E. Falconer, 2 and Lee Lines 3 TheecologicalimpactsofearlyagricultureintheNearEastremainedlocalized prior to the intensified production of derivative plant and animal products, be- ginning in the fourth millennium B.C. One aspect of this secondary products revolution (Sherratt, 1980a, 1983) involved the adoption of animal traction and increased production of rendered animal commodities (e.g., wool and dairy). However, most of the pervasive regional effects of this revolution fol- lowedfromthedomesticationandincreasinglyintensivecultivationoforchard crops that generated marketable secondary products (e.g., olive oil, wine, and dried fruits) and encouraged widespread deforestation. In the southern Lev- ant this revolution encouraged, and was encouraged by, the rise and fall of Bronze Age towns and their mercantile influences. Botanical and palynologi- caldatafromtheJordanRiftrevealacomplexdiscontinuouslegacyofchanges wrought by the secondary products revolution that have molded the agrarian ecology and anthropogenic landscapes characteristic of the region today. KEY WORDS: agricultural intensification; anthropogenic forests; Middle East; secondary products; urbanism. INTRODUCTION Some of the most compelling incentives to adopt Childes revolutionary rhetoric regarding the advent of agriculture (e.g., Childe, 1950) include the globalsocialandenvironmentalconsequencesofthedomesticationofplants, especially cereals. However, the societies of the Old World subsequently 1 DepartmentofGeography,ArizonaStateUniversity,Box870104,Tempe,Arizona85287-0104. 2 Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 3 Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. 4 To whom correspondence should be addressed; e-mail: fall@asu.edu. 445 0300-7839/02/1200-0445/0 C 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation 446 Fall, Falconer, and Lines experienced the comparably profound effects of what Andrew Sherratt (1980a, 1983) has dubbed the secondary products revolution. While the Neolithic agricultural revolution profoundly altered the cultural and eco- logical landscapes of the Old World, it was not until the development of market economies in the fourth and third millennia B.C. , some 5000 years after the advent of agriculture, that this second great wave of agricultural intensification caused widespread impacts on the landscape. In Sherratts estimation, the most significant impacts of this revolution stemmed from the harnessing of domesticated animal power and a regime of animal husbandry dedicated increasingly to the marketing of derivative products....
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Fall et al (2002) Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution Along the Jorda

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