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Lecture 5 Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction 1

Lecture 5 Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction 1 -...

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Wed. Sept. 8 To Do List – Paleoclimatic Reconstruction Intro-important concepts Ice Cores Ocean Cores • Dendroclimatology
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Conceptual Model Relating Aspects of the Environment (Redman figure 3.1) NATURE CULTURE BIOTIC ABIOTIC Plants and Animal Communities Climatic / Geographic Context Human / Social Systems Built Environment
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Climate What are the spheres of climate? What are some of the “forcing factors” of climate? How is climate measured? What are some anthropogenic influences on climate?
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Ice Cores proxies for temperature, ocean volume, precipitation, atmospheric gases, volcanic eruptions, solar variability, sea- surface productivity, desert extent and forest fires Main Evidence Air Bubbles Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations=> Greenhouse gas concentrations, temp changes Water Oxygen isotopes=> Air temperature Dust and Ash Concentrations => how dry climate, how strong the winds, volcanic activity
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Unformatted text preview: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/science_nation/icecores.jsp Ocean Cores Main Evidence • Foraminifera and Coccoliths • Diatoms • Coral • Species Change=> sea temp and level • Oxygen Isotopes=> sea temp Oxygen Isotopes • 16 O and 18 O ratios • Warm – ocean has similar amounts of 16 O and 18 O, less ice formed but it is 16 O enriched • Cool – ocean has 16 O depletion and 18 O enrichment, ice has 16 O enrichment and 18 O depletion From Indonesia `````````` What happened here? What happened here? `````````` Dendroclimatology • Tree rings • Width generally correlated with amount of precipitation • But also controlled by species, age, soil nutrient and soil moisture status, sunshine, precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, seasonality http://tv.azpm.org/kuat/segments/2009/7/30/kuat-ua-tree-ring-lab/...
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