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The Secrets of Storytelling

The Secrets of Storytelling - W The Secrets of By Jeremy...

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46 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN MIND August/September 2008 W hen Brad Pitt tells Eric Bana in the 2004 fi lm Troy that “there are no pacts between lions and men,” he is not reciting a clever line from the pen of a Hollywood screenwriter. He is speaking Achilles’ words in English as Homer wrote them in Greek more than 2,000 years ago in the Iliad. The tale of the Trojan War has captivated generations of audiences while evolving from its origins as an oral epic to written versions and, fi nally, to several fi lm adaptations. The power of this story to transcend time, language and culture is clear even today, evidenced by Troy ’s robust success around the world. Popular tales do far more than entertain, however. Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently become fascinated by the human predilection for storytelling. Why does our brain seem to be wired to enjoy stories? And how do the emotional and cognitive effects of a narrative infl uence our be- liefs and real-world decisions? The answers to these questions seem to be rooted in our history as a social animal. We tell stories about other people and for other people. Sto- ries help us to keep tabs on what is happening in our communities. The safe, imaginary world of a story may be a kind of training ground, where we can practice interacting with others and learn the customs and rules of society. And stories have a unique power to persuade and motivate, because they appeal to our emotions and capacity for empathy. A Good Yarn Storytelling is one of the few human traits that are truly universal across culture and through all of known history. Anthropologists fi nd evidence of folktales everywhere in ancient cultures, written in Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Chinese, Egyptian and Sumerian. People in societies of all types weave nar- ratives, from oral storytellers in hunter-gatherer tribes to the millions of writers churning out books, television shows and movies. And when a char- acteristic behavior shows up in so many different societies, researchers pay attention: its roots may tell us something about our evolutionary past. To study storytelling, scientists must fi rst defi ne what constitutes a sto- ry, and that can prove tricky. Because there are so many diverse forms, scholars often defi ne story structure, known as narrative, by explaining what it is not. Exposition contrasts with narrative by being a simple, straightforward explanation, such as a list of facts or an encyclopedia entry. Another standard approach defi nes narrative as a series of causally linked events that unfold over time. A third defi nition hinges on the typical narra- tive’s subject matter: the interactions of intentional agents—characters with minds—who possess various motivations.
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