chap006 (1) - Introduction to Requirements Discovery...

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Introduction to Requirements Discovery Requirements discovery – the process and techniques used by systems analysts to identify or extract system problems and solution requirements from the user community. System requirement – something that the information system must do or a property that it must have. Also called a business requirement . Why – Over budget, overdue, doesn’t meet expectations, high operating cost, unreliable, reputation.
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Functional vs. Nonfunctional Requirements Functional requirement - something the information system must do Nonfunctional requirement - a property or quality the system must have Performance Security Costs
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The Process of Requirements Discovery Problem discovery and analysis Requirements discovery Documenting and analyzing requirements Requirements management
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Ishikawa Diagram (Problem Discovery and Analysis) The Ishikawa diagram is a graphical tool used to identify, explore, and depict problems and the causes and effects of those problems. It is often referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram or a fishbone diagram.
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Requirements Discovery Given an understanding of problems, the systems analyst can start to define requirements. Fact-finding – the formal process of methods and techniques to collect information about system problems, requirements, and preferences. It is also called information gathering or data collection . Seven Fact-Finding Methods: Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases. Research and site visits. Observation of the work environment. Questionnaires. Interviews. Prototyping. Joint requirements planning (JRP).
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Sampling Existing Documentation, Forms, & Files Sampling –process of collecting a representative sample of documents, forms, and records. Organization chart Memos and other documents that describe the problem Standard operating procedures for current system Completed forms Manual and computerized screens and reports Samples of databases Flowcharts and other system documentation And more
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Things to be Gleaned from Documents Symptoms and causes of problems Persons in organization who have understanding of problem Business functions that support the present system Type of data to be collected and reported by the system Questions that need to be covered in interviews
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Sampling Notes Determine Sample Size how certain you want and need to be. Sample Size = 0.25 x (Certainty factor/Acceptable error) 2 Sample Size = 0.25(1.645/0.10) 2 = 68 Randomization a sampling technique characterized by having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data.
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