History Midterm Review

History Midterm Review - History Philosophy and First...

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History Midterm Review History Philosophy and First Civilizations Key words: Absolute history - only one correct story Ethnocentrism - bias based on beliefs Sedentary - stay in one place, agriculture/ fishing community, permanent Non - sedentary - does not stay in one place, nonpermanent Semi - sedentary - only move when they have to, semi permanent Codex - similar to Egyptian calligraphy used by the Aztecs Pre-“discovery” -Initial Native Americans were believed to habituate the Americas prior to the colonization of the Europeans. -Native American tribes were described to be sedentary (permanent community), non  sedentary (non permanent) and semi sedentary (semi permanent). Inca, Mayan and Aztec a) Inca - the Incan empire was short lived but was a powerful conquering empire because of its totalitarian type of government where kings and nobles had most power. They had a bureaucracy , had artistic roots in music had an education system. They were located along the west of South America . b) Mayan - the Mayan empire’s rule was the longest. Composite states which were an alliance between city states contributed to its success as a powerful and long lasting empire. They were technologically advanced and were located in the southern peninsula  of North America which is modern day Mexico . c) Aztecs - the Aztec empire’s height in power was during the 14 th century. Tenochtitlan  was the capital of the Aztec empire. They were known to be the most ruthless out of all the empires.
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Blood and Guts - Sacrifice in the indigenous world meant something sacred . It was their way of thanking and pleasing their Gods. When westerners witnessed the Aztec ritual, they were appalled . They depicted them as merciless massacres in Spanish paintings. Aztec god, Huitzipochtlic, demanded 10,000 hearts a year. -Aztec leader, Moctezuma , took over in 1502 and was very devoted to the Gods. Spanish conquistador, Cortez , wanted to take over this empire because he wanted wealth and power . He and his men arrived in ship and burned the ship afterwards to keep his men from leaving. Aztecs gave Cortez gold and riches because he was believed to be a “god”, not in terms of deity, but in terms of power; Moctezuma considered him as an equal, in terms of power. Cortez successfully conquered the Aztec empire with the help of Native  Americans and technological advances . Other Native American Tribes - Olmecs were a southwest farming nation. They were best known for their sacred oversized stone heads , written language , the number zero , pyramids , introducing sacrifice  in their religion , compass , ball sports , and the calendar  (though the Aztecs were more well known for theirs). The Problem with Disease -European contact with the indigenous tribes had caused a widespread illness in their communities. Illness such as measles , tuberculosis , and small pox were among the few that killed approximately 11 million natives. Domestication of animals like llamas, cattle, sheep and pigs were the main cause of disease since most were non - immune .
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