chapter1

chapter1 - 1 Ch1IntroductiontoComputersandProgramming 1 2...

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1 Ch 1 - Introduction to Computers and Programming Hardware Terminology Main Memory Auxiliary Memory Drives Writing Algorithms Using Pseudocode Programming Language Code The Compilation Process for Non-Java Programs Object code Portability Java Vitual Machine The Compilation Process for Java Programs History of Java 1 2
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2 Hardware Terminology Computer system = all of the components shown below. 1 2 3
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3 Hardware Terminology I/O = input and output devices Input examples: keyboard,  mouse, scanner. Output examples: monitor  (screen), printer. CPU = the computer's "brain." Synonyms: central processing unit processor microprocessor popular CPUs: Core 2 Duo (manufactured by  Intel) Athlon 64 (manufactured by  AMD) 1 2 3 4 main memory storage devices (auxiliary memory) CPU output devices input devices
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4 Main Memory When a computer performs  calculations, it often needs to  save intermediate results. It saves those intermediate  results in the  main memory   storage area. Main memory is often called  RAM (Random Access  Memory). 1 2 3 Memory contains storage boxes, and each storage box contains  a piece of information. For example, if a program stores the  word “Emu,” it uses six storage boxes: one for the first half of E,  one for the second half of E, one for the first half of m, one for  the second half of m, etc. main memory storage devices (auxiliary memory) CPU output devices input devices
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5 Main Memory Each of the six storage boxes used to store Emu  is a  byte . Computers don't understand the alphabet. They  only understand 0’s and 1’s. So computers map  each alphabet character to a series of sixteen 0's  and 1's. For example, the letter E is 00000000  01000101. So in storing the letter E, main  memory actually stores 00000000 01000101.  Each of the 0's and 1's is called a  bit . And each  of the eight-bit groupings is a byte. The  capacity  (size) of memory is described in  terms of number of bytes. RAM capacities in a typical computer range from  512 MB (megabyte) to 3 GB (gigabyte). RAM is  volatile  – data is lost when power is  turned off. 1 2 4 5 Address Memory  Contents 50,000 50,001 50,002 50,003 50,004 50,005 m E u 3
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6 Auxiliary Memory Auxiliary memory  is for saving  data permanently. It's  non- volatile . Auxiliary memory comes in  many different forms, the most  common of which are hard  disks, diskettes, compact  discs, and USB flash drives.  Those things are called  storage devices . 1 3 Storage capacities: Typical hard disk: 80 GB up to 1 TB. High density 3.5" diskette: 1.44 MB.
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chapter1 - 1 Ch1IntroductiontoComputersandProgramming 1 2...

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