chapt54 - Behavioral Biology Chapter 54 Approaches...

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Behavioral Biology Chapter 54
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Approaches Behavior: the way an animal responds to stimulus in its environment Two components of behavior Immediate cause (how?) Evolutionary origin (why?) Proximate causation:“how” of behavior Measure: hormone level – testosterone Impulse of nerve signal
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Ultimate causation: “why” of behavior Determine how behavior influences reproductive success or survival Controversy: Is behavior determined by individual’s genes (nature) Or by learning and experience (nurture) Approaches
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Approaches Innate behavior: instinctive, does not require learning Preset paths in nervous system Genetic: fixed action pattern Example: goose replacing an egg from her nest
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Approaches Egg retrieval behavior is triggered by a sign stimulus Innate releasing mechanism or fixed action pattern is the stereotyped act Not very specific: anything round will trigger the goose’s reaction Once pattern begins, it goes to completion; even if the egg is removed
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Approaches Male stickleback fish will attack anything with a red underside Does not need to be a fish Supernormal stimuli: given a choice: animals respond to a larger stimuli over a normal size stimuli
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Behavioral Genetics Artificial selection data has shown that behavioral differences among individuals often result from genetic differences Genetics of learning
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Human twin study Identical twins: identical genetically 50 sets, twins raised separately Similarity in personality, temperament, leisure time activities Indicates that genetics plays a role in determining behavior even in humans Behavioral Genetics
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One gene determines behavior Mice: fosB gene Determines whether female mice nurture their young Both fosB alleles disabled: ignore young Normal mothers: protective maternal behavior Protein expressed by fosB activates other enzymes and genes that affect neural circuitry within the hypothalamus Behavioral Genetics
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fosB present: mother cares for her young fosB absent: young are ignored and eventually die Behavioral Genetics
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Prairie voles are monogamous Montane voles mate and do not work together to raise young Different response to oxytocin and vasopressin Peptide receptors different Behavioral Genetics
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Learning Learning: altered behavior as a result of previous experiences Nonassociative learning : does not require an animal to form an association between two stimuli or between a stimulus and response Habituation: decrease in response to a repeated stimulus No positive or negative consequences
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Associative learning: association between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response Conditioned behavior through association Two major types: Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Differ in the way associations are established Learning
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predator-prey interactions: after being stung the toad learns not to eat bumblebees. Learning
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2010 for the course BIOL BIOL1722 taught by Professor S during the Spring '07 term at North Texas.

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chapt54 - Behavioral Biology Chapter 54 Approaches...

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