Chapter 9 Joints.pdf - 2/21/13 Articulations (joints)...

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2/21/131Articulations (joints)Chapter 9Joints hold bones togetherPermit movementThe point of contact can be– Between 2 bones– Between cartilage & bone– Between teeth & boneArthrology - study of jointsKinesiology - study of motion
2/21/132Classification of JointsStructural classification based upon:Presence of space between bonesType of connective tissue holding bones togetherCollagen fibers• CartilageJoint capsule & accessory ligamentsFunctional classifiction based on movement:Immovable - synarthrosisSlightly movable - amphiarthrosisFreely movable - diarthrosisFibrous JointsLack a synovial cavityBones held closely together by fibrousconnective tissueLittle or no movement (synarthrosis oramphiarthrosis)3 structural types– Sutures– Syndesmoses– gomphoses
2/21/133SuturesThin layer of dense fibrous connectivetissue unites bones of the skullImmovable (synarthrosis)
2/21/134SyndesmosisBones united by ligamentSlightly moveable (amphiarthrosis)Ex. Between the tibia & fibulaGomphosisLigaments holds cone-shaped peg in bonysocketImmovable (synarthrosis)Teeth in alveolar sockets
2/21/135Cartilaginous JointsLacks a synovial cavityAllows little to no movementBones tightly connected by fibrocartilage orhyaline cartilage2 types:– Synchondroses– symphysesSynchondrosisHyaline cartilage connective tissueImmovable (synarthrosis)Epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs &sternum
2/21/136SymphysisFibrocartilage connective tissueSlightly movable (amphiarthroses)Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
2/21/137Synovial JointsSynovial cavity separates articulating bonesFreely moveable (diarthroses)Articular cartilageReduces frictionAbsorbs shockArticular capsuleSurrounds jointThickenings in fibrous capsule called ligamentsSynovial membraneInner lining of capsuleSecretes synovial fluid containing hyaluronic acid (slippery)Brings nutrients to articular cartilage
2/21/138Other Special StructuresAccessory ligamentsExtracapsular ligaments - outside joint capsuleIntracapsular ligaments - inside joint capsuleArticular discs or menisciAttached around edges to capsuleAllows 2 bones of different shape to fit tightlyIncreases stability of kneeBursae - saclike structures that reduce frictionSkin/bone or tendon/bone or ligament/boneTendon sheaths - tubelike bursaeWrap around tendons and reduce friction

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Term
Winter
Professor
Valory Thatcher
Tags
joints, hinge joint, Synovial joint, joint capsule

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