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103009a - e-’s using the atomic orbitals of the bound...

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Enthalpy of Reaction from Bond Energy y Bond breaking is endothermic y Bond making is exothermic
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Average Bond Energies
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Sample Problem y Estimate the enthalpy of reaction for the following reaction: H-C N (g) + 2 H 2 (g) H 3 CNH 2 (g)
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Average Bond Lengths
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Sample Problem y The space shuttle orbiter utilizes the oxidation of methyl hydrazine by dinitrogen tetraoxide for propulsion: { 5 N 2 O 4 (l) + 4 N 2 H 3 CH 3 (l) Æ 12 H 2 O (l) + 9 N 2 (g) + 4 CO 2 (g)
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Properties of Bonds y Bond length – the smallest distance between the two nuclei y Bond Energy – the energy needed to break a bond y Electronegativity – the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself (not a measurable property)
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Electronegativity
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Model for Bonding y A representation of what is happening, but not completely correct y Localized electron model – a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of
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Unformatted text preview: e-’s using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms y Lewis dot structure – method of keeping track of e-’s in bonding y VSEPR – simple approach to predicting structures and shapes of molecules Lewis Dot Structures y Based on wanting to attain noble gas electron configuration y Leads to the octet rule y Types of electrons - core and valence y Dot structures - method of representing the valence electrons How to draw Lewis Dot Structures y Step 1: count the number of valence electrons y Step 2: Put central atom and arrange atoms around central atom y Step 3: Distribute electrons around all the atoms except the central atom y Step 4: Count up the number of electrons used and fill the octet on the central atoms by adding lone pairs or multiple bonds...
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