110609a - 1. Write the Lewis structure. 2. Determine the...

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COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS Zumdahl Chapter 9
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Valence Bond Method y Bonds are formed by overlapping orbitals from each atom in a molecule. y Mixing of s, p and d orbitals on each atom creates special hybrid orbitals for bonding. y The atoms reorganize their orbitals in order to minimize the energy of bonding and proper orientation for bonding. y Two electrons can be in each hybrid orbital during bonding.
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Valence Orbitals
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Can you get bond angles of 109.5 o from our valence orbitals? Yes No 36% 64% 1. Yes 2. No
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sp 3 Hybridized Orbitals
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Can you get bond angles of 120 o from our valence orbitals? Yes No 36% 64% 1. Yes 2. No
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sp 2 Hybridized Orbitals
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Can you get bond angles of 180 o from our valence orbitals? Yes No 47% 53% 1. Yes 2. No
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sp Hybridized Orbitals
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dsp 3 Hybridized Orbitals
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d 2 sp 3 Hybridized Orbitals
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Summary of Hybridized Orbitals
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Write the Lewis structure. 2. Determine the shape by VSEPR. 3. Form enough hybrid orbitals for central atom to contain bonding electrons and lone pairs. d 2 sp 3 6 dsp 3 5 sp 3 4 sp 2 3 sp 2 Hybridization # Electron Domains Multiple Bonds y Sigma bonds – ( σ ) formed by overlapping the hybrid orbitals; electron density is along the internuclear axis y Pi bonds – ( π ) formed by overlapping p orbitals perpendicular to the internuclear axis; electron density is off axis, above and below the σ bond Sigma Bonds Pi Bonds Practice Identifying Sigma and Pi Bonds O CH 3 O NH O NH 2 O OH Answers to Aspartame Questions 1. 39 2. 6 3. sp 3 4. sp 2 5. sp 3 6. 5 sp 3 ; 9 sp 2 ; 0 sp 7. 1s 8. 2p...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2010 for the course CHEM 105A taught by Professor Bau during the Fall '04 term at USC.

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110609a - 1. Write the Lewis structure. 2. Determine the...

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