academic_proposal_ldyeager_2010

academic_proposal_ldyeager_2010 - "Go confidently...

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Unformatted text preview: "Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined." ---Henry David Thoreau lowery dayle yeager - 2010 Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Remarks This is one of the more important Power Points. It dictates This the mood for writing proposals as planning documents for forthcoming investigations. forthcoming These slides significantly contribute to all examinations. Slides marked “most important” or “very important” Slides provide critical information. provide Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Introductory Remarks a) This is one of the more important Power Point files. It dictates the mood for writing proposals as planning documents intended for future investigations. These slides not only significantly contribute to all examinations but also provide guidelines for successfully completing acceptable research proposals. Information contained in this file is closely coordinated with a word document file entitled Academic Proposal Worksheet, which is located in Task 6 doc sharing. Even though most information is referenced to the APA Publication Manual and typical graduate school requirements, certain deviations have been incorporated into these performance specifications. b) c) d) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Academic Proposal Proposal Specifications for a research proposal Elements of an academic proposal 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Abstract Title Introduction Background Significance of Problem Purpose of Study Research Questions (and/or) Hypotheses 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Assumptions Limitations Definition of Terms Ch. 3: Compilation of Data Ch. 4: Analyses of Data Ch. 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Bibliography Appendix 7) 8) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Elements of an academic proposal Please Note: a) b) Order of 1 - 11 may be rearranged, depending on author’s organizational skills. Research questions may replace hypotheses, or vice versa depending on research method. Cover page and vita are optional depending on specific research requirements. For a proposal, Chapter 5 (except for forthcoming statements) cannot be fully written because the proposed study has not been completed; it has only been planned. Traditional proposals may require segments entitled “Plan of Procedure” and “Remainder of Study” following “Definition of Terms.” They have been replaced in this proposal scheme by Chapters 3, 4, and 5. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) c) d) e) Abstract Title Introduction Background Significance of Problem Purpose of Study Research Questions (and/or) Hypotheses 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Assumptions Limitations Definition of Terms Ch. 3: Compilation of Data Ch. 4: Analyses of Data Ch. 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Bibliography Appendix Proposal format is: Proposal Abstract Chapter 1 Title Introduction Background Significance of the Problem Purpose of the Study Research Questions Assumptions Limitations Hypotheses Definition of Terms Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Bibliography Appendix Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Headings recommended in APA’s Headings Publication Manual Publication CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING (Level 5) Centered Uppercase and Lowercase heading (Level 1) Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2) Flush left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase side Heading (Level 3) Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 abstract note For a completed investigation, research study, etc., an abstract is a brief, but comprehensive summary of the document being described. Purpose is to allow reader to quickly understand contents of a document. Abstracts may be used as a guide, or key, when searching data bases for specific information. Length varies, but the APA Publication Manual recommends 120 words. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 abstract note For the purpose of a proposal, several changes are necessary. Purpose will be changed from a comprehensive summary of completed research to a summary of a proposed study. Items to be addresses will be purpose of planned study, identity and size of desired sample, and statistical analyses that will be employed for planned data compilation. Number of words will be limited to 120, which is recommended by APA. The abstract will begin by stating the purpose, research method, etc. of planned investigation. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 title … purpose is to provide insight into problem, issue, question, or topic being researched. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 A quality title reflects these quality elements: elements: involves word count that is explanatory and not excessively long; usually 10 or 15 words, but never over 25 words) contains only pertinent or significant words reflects topic (identifies issue/problem to be studied) offers clarity, insight, and limitations as suggested by wording avoids wording such as “ A Descriptive Study To …” Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Do not confuse title with topic. A title is the name for the topic (or problem) being investigated. A topic is a problem, question, or issue that can be examined for suitable resolution through collecting, compiling, and analyzing data. A research endeavor cannot be successful unless the “problem” to be investigated has been clearly identified. Note: Topic and problem are frequently used interchangeably. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 introduction introduction includes the beginning remarks about current status and application of topic tends to establish an initial focus for the proposed investigative project is optional but when used tends to establish initial focus for planned investigation Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 introduction provides larger context for problem states and explains problem in specific terms restricts scope of problem, or topic briefly suggests study’s organization Note: Depending on planning document’s organization and comprehensiveness, may be combined with background. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 background provides brief narrative statements about origin & development of problem becomes more extensive when introduction segment has been purposely omitted introduction and background may be combined when more effective note denoted as “Introduction/Background” when combined Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 significance of problem …the reason why an investigation for a given problem or its contributions are/will be important Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 significance of problem Researcher must know what the problem is and why a proposed (planned) solution is necessary. Researcher must be careful not to demonstrate bias or foregone conclusions when stating the significance of an investigation. critical Example of incorrect statement: “This study shall be important because it shall prove that the female gender is underpaid in the global business climate.” Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 purpose of study …succinctly (briefly) states the anticipated, ultimate objective of the investigation Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 When writing “a purpose of study” keep statements simple and factual address issue with no more than two or three sentences when possible don’t confuse the purpose by adding unnecessary information guidelines criteria “Has focus been maintained?” “Is problem researchable?” “Does purpose agree with plans?” Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 assumptions statements that are accepted as being true or accurate for a given study, but cannot be easily proven some investigations are impossible unless certain beliefs and perceptions are accepted to be valid even though scientific-based truths do not substantiate such beliefs and perceptions Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 types of assumptions technology-based example: a thermometer will maintain its integrity of preciseness while being used to record temperatures example: the person using the thermometer will use it correctly and as intended while recording temperatures for randomlyselected samples pedagogy-based Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 limitations …definite statements confining range and scope of investigation for the planned study Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Limitations are extremely Limitations important in research because they _____. they …are the management tools required to maintain control of an investigation. …establish research parameters. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Delimitations Delimitations are often preferred rather than limitations, even though both serve similar purposes. A simple description for delimitations is: What a researcher will attempt is stated in the purpose of the problem. What the researcher will not attempt is stated in the delimitations. note Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Which is required? a) hypotheses b) research questions selection driven by various factors, including: critical Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 method of investigation purpose of investigation guidelines of sponsoring agency hypotheses …statements designed to be tested for acceptance or rejection Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 hypotheses Hypotheses are written to be proved or disproved as a result of research findings. Researchers must never attempt to prove or disprove hypotheses! They are statements designed to be tested for acceptance or rejection. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Several other classifications of Several hypotheses are _____. hypotheses a) alternate (sometimes known as research hypothesis) – may be tested statistically, but states a given condition qualitative – do not lend themselves to numerical measurements quantitative (sometimes called a statistical hypothesis) – are numerically measurable inductive – a generalization based on specific observations deductive – derived from theory based on developing a specific prediction from general principles b) c) d) e) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Guidelines for writing effective Guidelines hypotheses are: hypotheses a) a) a) a) a) b) all pertinent areas considered all pertinent possibilities of causes addressed only real, as compared to implied, causes considered all experimental bias eliminated only relevant hypotheses listed “testable” data are obtainable Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 research questions … pertinent items to be answered as a result of a planned investigation (may be in lieu of testing hypotheses, depending on research method and organization) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 When are research questions When preferred rather than hypotheses? hypotheses? … normally when dealing with descriptive studies and/or studies involving qualitative rather than quantitative data Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Specifications for writing pertinent Specifications research questions research a) b) Questions are related to topic being studied. Questions are reflective of proposed study’s stated purpose. Questions will be resolved using accessible data collected when planned study has been completed. Questions are more appropriate and, thus, more effective than hypotheses. c) d) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 definition of terms descriptions of words, terms, processes, etc. unique to study similar to limitations for purposes of direction and control factors designed to assist person reading and assessing study uniqueness and specialty are governing factors for number required a) b) c) d) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 meanings are important ... “I loved France. It was great. The only trouble was they have a different word for everything over there.” ...Woody Allen Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Remainder of study will include Remainder chapters reflective of: chapters a) b) Chapter 2: review of literature Chapter 3: collection (and tabulation) of data Chapter 4: data analyses Chapter 5: summary, conclusions, and recommendations c) d) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Remainder may/may not include Remainder the following: the a) Bibliography – this aspect of the proposal must be included. Appendix – supplementary information better explaining or documenting important aspects of the proposed study are included for reference; depends on document’s organization. a) b) Pilot Study – when proposed, it is normally included as a part of the proposal segment addressing the source of data; depends on research methodology. Vita a) b) Vita is a personal and/or profession sketch of the researcher. It is typically included only in a completed research document rather than a proposal. b) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Bibliography a) b) c) note note d) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Bibliographies and reference lists are often confused. Only those references cited are included in reference lists. Bibliographies may contain entries researched and cited and other entries investigated but not specifically cited. For the academic proposal format, only references actually cited are to be included in the bibliography. abstract a) Number of words will be limited to 120, which is recommended by APA. Objective will be changed from a comprehensive summary of a completed document to a summary identifying the planned purpose, the target population to be sampled, and the research method and statistics to be employed should the proposed study be attempted in the future. The abstract will begin by stating “The method of research will be …” b) note note c) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 appendix a) b) Less intense projects seldom contain appendixes. Proposals may be similarly treated unless a need for comprehensive documentation exist. Entries may include raw data, instruments, explanatory graphics, performance specifications, tolerances (precision of instrument), etc. c) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 appendix An appendix is advisable where including such information in a main text would be distracting. Typical materials are raw data, letters of permission, copies of instruments, etc. When appropriately used, appendixes are the concluding or last segments in a research report and are identified as Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. Care should be exercised not to abuse the privilege of including only beneficial materials. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Manuscript arrangement (graduate Manuscript school guidelines for thesis)* 1) 2) 3) 4) Blank Sheet Title Page Signature Sheet Copyright Page (if applicable) Abstract Acknowledgments (if applicable) Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 1) List of Tables (if applicable) List of Figures (if applicable) Body Bibliography Appendix (if applicable) 2) 3) 4) 5) 5) 6) 7) 6) Vita *recommended for completed document – not proposal Table of Contents Page numbering (Graduate School guidelines for thesis) a) b) c) d) First page of each major division of the manuscript (Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, Bibliography, etc.) and the first page of each chapter must be numbered in the center of the bottom of the page, one line below the one-inch margin. Number all other pages at the top, right-hand side. Two blank pages and title page are not numbered; other pages of the manuscript must be numbered. Appendices differ per to manual selection. Preliminary pages are numbered with small Roman numerals. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Page numbering (Graduate School Page guidelines for thesis) a) b) c) d) e) The signature page is given page number "ii." The body of the manuscript is numbered with Arabic numbers. The copyright page (if applicable) will be page number iii. Page numbers on the Table of Contents, List of Tables or List of Figures should be the same as the numbers in the text. There should be no page entry or page number listed on the Table of Contents page of any page preceding the Table of Contents. Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 Albert Einstein’s quote “The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 "Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined." ---Henry David Thoreau lowery dayle yeager - 2008 Lowery Lowery Dayle Yeager - 2010 ...
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academic_proposal_ldyeager_2010 - "Go confidently...

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