Instrument_Design,_yeager - L. Dayle Yeager, Professor...

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L. Dayle Yeager, Professor Industrial Applied Research 1 Instrument Design Data Collection Data are pieces of information that may be collected and assessed to reach decisions regarding pertinent research questions for a given investigation. As related to hypotheses, such information may also be used to test hypotheses for either acceptance or rejection. (It should be noted that hypotheses are never proved or disproved; they are only accepted or rejected.) Methods of data collection are often conducted by instruments that may be classified according to several basic outcomes, namely: (1) surveying and (2) identifying. These instruments may be further categorized as either paper or mechanical instruments. When human behavior, traits, and perceptions are involved, paper instruments in the form of questionnaires may be used to survey samples of populations. Another paper instrument involves data collected from various testing formats, including investigator-designed exams and standardized exams. Such exams may be used to identify achievement levels, cognitive levels, perceptions, attitudes, and personality traits for students, employees, cultures, etc. The method of data compilation for identifying usually involves some form of mechanical instrumentation to classify conditions associated with nonhuman activities. Examples may include thermometers, dosimeters, digital measuring devices, etc. to ascertain characteristics and qualities of samples selected from a nonhuman parameter. It should not be overlooked, however, that these mechanical means may also be used to survey and identify certain human traits such as physical height, blood pressure, temperature, etc. Measuring Instrument Criteria Even though there are various criteria used to judge the quality of measuring instruments, validity and reliability remain as dominant characteristics. Validity may be simply defined as the ability of an instrument to measure what it purports to measure while reliability addresses an instrument’s ability to consistency measure what it is intended to measure. As related to validity, various questions are as follow: a) Content validity: To what extent does this instrument represent the general domain of interest? b) Criterion-related validity: To what extent does this instrument correlate with another instrument? c) Face validity: To what extent does this instrument appear to be able to measure what it is intended to measure? d) Predictive validity: To what extent can the instrument’s measurement predict future actions and/or conditions in similar, but delayed situations? e) Construct validity: To what extent does this instrument measure what is suppose to measure?
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L. Dayle Yeager, Professor Industrial Applied Research 2 f) Consequential validity: To what extent does the instrument’s measurement alter the item being measured? Different types of reliability are as follow:
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course TMGT TMGT 595 taught by Professor Dr.l.yeager during the Fall '10 term at Texas A&M University–Commerce.

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Instrument_Design,_yeager - L. Dayle Yeager, Professor...

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