Bio third exam SG

Bio third exam SG - Chapter 40.1- 40.2: Basic Principles of...

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Chapter 40.1- 40.2: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function I. Body Plans A. Interstitial fluid= the fluid in the spaces between cells B. Advantages of complex body plan= external skeleton for protection, sensory organs to provide detailed information on surroundings, internal digestive organs to break down food, control of food storage for energy, filtration systems to adjust the composition of internal fluid that bathes animal's body cells C. Tissues= groups of cells, organs= groups of tissues, groups of organs= organ systems D. Digestive system= mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small, and large intestine + accessory organs and anus; purpose= food processing E. Circulatory= heart, blood vessels, blood; purpose= internal distribution of materials F. Respiratory= lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes; purpose= gas exchange (uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide) F. Immune and lymphatic= bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells; purpose= body defense (fighting infections and cancer) G. Epithelial Tissue=sheets of cells that cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavities within the body; cells of an epithelial tissue= epithelium; may be cuboidal (dice) (in kidney tubules and many glands), squamous (floor tiles), simple epithelium (single layer), stratified epithelium (multiple layers), pseudostratified epithelium (single layer varying in height)(in resp. tract), simple columnar epithelium (in digestive tract) H. Connective Tissues= bind and support other tissues in the body; types= loose connective tissue (most widespread in body), cartilage, fibrous connective tissue (in tendons-muscles to bones and ligaments-bones to bones at joints), adipose tissue, blood, and bone; 3 types of tissue fibers made of proteins: collagenous (strength and flexibility- made of collagen), elastic (easily stretched but resilient- made of elastin), and reticular (very thin and branched- made of collagen and continuous within collagenous fibers) I. Chondrocytes= secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate that makes cartilage strong yet flexible J. Plasma= liquid extracellular matrix of blood; consists of water, salts, and dissolved proteins, and erythrocytes (red blood cells-carry oxygen), leukocytes (white blood cells- defense), and platelets (clotting) K. Bone forming cells= osteoblasts, deposit a matrix of collagen; repeating units in bones= osteons (concentric layers of the mineralized matrix around a central canal containing blood vessels and nerves) L. Connective tissue contains 2 main types of cells: fibroblasts (secrete protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers) and macrophages (engulf foreign particles and the debris of dead cells by phagocytosis)
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M. Muscle tissue= consists of filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin, which together enable muscles to contract N. Nervous tissue= senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another; nervous tissue contains neurons, or nerve cells, which have
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course BISC 220 taught by Professor Mcclure during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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Bio third exam SG - Chapter 40.1- 40.2: Basic Principles of...

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