chapter 22 outline

chapter 22 outline - The American Promise, 4th edition...

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The American Promise , 4 th edition Chapter 22 Outline World War I: The Progressive Crusade at Home and Abroad, 1914-1920 I. Woodrow Wilson and the World A. Taming the Americas 1. Wilson sought to distinguish his foreign policy from that of his Republican predecessors by appointing William Jennings Bryan, a pacifist, as secretary of state. 2. Wilson and Bryan, like Roosevelt and Taft, believed that the Monroe Doctrine gave the United States special rights and responsibilities in the Western Hemisphere, using it to justify U.S. action in Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic . 3. Wilson's most serious and controversial involvement in Latin America occurred in Mexico; the country witnessed a violent political turnover in the weeks before Wilson's inauguration that culminated in General Victoriano Huerta's seizure of power. 4. The United States forced Huerta into exile, only to prompt a rebellion among desperately poor farmers who believed that the new Mexican government, aided by American business interests, had betrayed the revolution's promise to help the common people. 5. A rebel army, led by Francisco “Pancho” Villa, attacked Americans and American interests, causing Wilson to send 12,000 troops to Mexico, only to withdraw them soon after to prepare for the possibility of fighting in World War I. B. The European Crisis 1. Before 1914, Europe enjoyed decades of peace, but beneath the surface lay the potentially destructive forces of nationalism and imperialism. 2. European nations sought to avoid an explosion by establishing a complex web of military and diplomatic alliances, but their efforts to prevent war through a balance of power, in reality magnified the possibility of large-scale conflict. 3. Within weeks of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Bosnian Serb terrorist, the elaborate alliance system made a local conflict an international one, and war broke out in Europe. 4. The conflict escalated to a world war when Japan joined the cause against Germany. 1
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C. The Ordeal of American Neutrality 1. Woodrow Wilson announced that the war was a European matter, that the United States would remain neutral, and would continue normal relations with the warring nations. 2. Although Wilson proclaimed neutrality, his sympathies, like those of many Americans, lay with Great Britain and France. 3. Great Britain was the first to test America's neutrality by using its navy to set up an economic blockade of Germany. 4. Germany retaliated with a submarine blockade of British ports, and on May 7, 1915, a German U-boat torpedoed the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing over 1,000 passengers, 128 of them U.S. citizens. 5.
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chapter 22 outline - The American Promise, 4th edition...

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