Unformatted text preview: Citation When referring to material that has already been cited unless some confusion could arise. Multiple quotations from same author in the same paragraph, when it is clear you are using the same source. When summarizing previously cited material. Parenthetical Citation One critic said the subjects “should have been fully informed” (Baumrind, 1968, p. 82). CITATIONS
• SAMPLE LONG QUOTE: (40+ words) [double space, indent, page #] LONG • The results have a more indirect implication, which is reflected in the following statement by M. W. Eysenck (1976): Single Indent and double space No quotation Marks In spite of the obvious importance of individual differences in human learning and memory, relatively few investigators incorporate any measure of intelligence, personality, or motivation into their studies. Instead, they prefer to relegate individual differences to the error term in their analyses of variance. (p. 75) Page 118 CITATIONS SAMPLE CITATION WITH SHORT QUOTE: One prominent writer defined leadership as “a process whereby individuals influence a group of followers to attain goals deemed important to the organization” (Kirkpatrick, et al., 1996, p.224). SAMPLE CITATION WITHOUT QUOTE: Pepinsky and DeStefano (1987) demonstrate that a teacher’s language often reveals hidden biases (p. 49). CITATIONS Sample Paraphrasing Most individuals, including teachers, are usually not aware of their biases. Those teachers who are interested in uncovering biases may engage the assistance of a trusted colleague to listen and provide feedback about hidden biases revealed in their language (Pepinsky & DeStefano, 1987) . CITATIONS PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS:
Personal Interview; Email, Letter Tricia Doe (personal communication, April 16, 2001) stated that there were… found that children are more frequently the victims (A. D. Creamer, personal communication, January 18, 2000). Do not list personal communications on reference page. Note! You are responsible for the accuracy of...
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- Fall '08
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