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十九3408655257 - CHAPTER...

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CHAPTER NINETEEN: PROMOTING INNOVATION, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP OVERVIEW OF THE CHAPTER This chapter examines the actions managers can take to improve the ability of their organizations to be innovative by developing new goods and services, a main building block of competitive advantage. The relationship between technological change, production innovation, and competition is examined, along with the goals of product development efforts. Principles for structuring an organization’s product development effort to attain these goals are outlined. The chapter closes with a discussion of entrepreneurship and the steps managers can take to promote entrepreneurship inside their organizations. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Explain managers’ role in facilitating product development. 2. Identify the factors that shorten the product life cycle and explain why reducing product development time increases the level of industry competition. 3. Identify the goals of product development and explain the relationships among them. 4. Explain the principles of product development and describe the way in which managers can encourage and promote innovation. 5. Describe how managers can encourage and promote entrepreneurship to help create a learning organization. A MANAGER’S CHALLENGE: HOW GOOGLE ENCOURAGES INNOVATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Google began in 1995 when two graduate students decided to collaborate to develop a new kind of search engine technology. They understood the limitations of existing search engines, and by 1998 they had developed a superior one that they felt was ready to go online. As entrepreneurs, they raised the capital required to buy the hardware needed to connect their innovation to the Internet. Google’s explosive growth is largely due to the culture of entrepreneurship and innovation that still exists at the company. Although the company had grown to 1,900 employees by 2004, its founders work hard to maintain a small-company culture. However, the founders’ focus upon entrepreneurship did not blind them to the harsh realities of the competitive business environment. Recognizing that they lacked business experience, they hired Eric Schimdt, a former executive at Novell, to serve in a top management capacity. Schmidt had expertise in strategic planning, management, and technology development. Jones, Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition 207
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CHAPTER NINETEEN THE MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP LECTURE OUTLINE I. INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, AND COMPETITION Technology is the skill, knowledge, experience, body of scientific knowledge, tools, machines, computers, and equipment that are used in the design, production, and distribution of goods and services. There are two main types of technological change: Quantum technological change is a fundamental shift in technology that results in the innovation of new kinds of goods and services, such as development of the Internet and the development of genetic engineering.
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