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Interm Living#Leon Taufani0029 - 3 Developing Human...

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Unformatted text preview: 3 / Developing Human Resource Capability Case Analyses Role-Playing Behavior Modeling Bandura’s theory 270 and variations of the game are available depending on the expertise and backgrounds of the trainees. The simulation has been used all over the world as a capstone, integrative experi- ence to an EMBA, MBA, or undergraduate program as well as by organizations (Nextel, Hughes Communications).110 In-baskets, as discussed in Chapter 6, are used to train managerial candidates in decision- making skills by requiring them to act on a variety of memos, reports, and other correspon- dence that are typically found in a manager’s in-basket. Participants must prioritize items and respond to them in a limited time period. In-baskets are often included in assessment centers. For example, the method is used as one component of the week—long executive development program at the Center for Creative Leadership. Outdoor experiential programs have gained in popularity as training methods for teams. In 2004, 20 percent of firms often or always used experiential programs, and it is estimated over is 100 million is spent annually on them.1 '1 Firms and programs such as Outward Bound and Higher Pursuits have developed a variety of outdoor activities and challenge courses (rope courses, canoeing trips, hiking trips) that can be used to help employers build stronger teams. By placing a work unit in a challenge course or physical activity, the coaches or counselors can observe how the unit works together and can debrief them and provide feedback on issues of communication, conflict, and trust. In the Executive Leadership Strategies Program con- ducted at Lockheed Martin Corporation, senior leaders learn about their own personalities and issues of trust and teamwork as they participate in a set of outdoor ropes challenges de- livered by The University of Maryland Campus Recreation center. Most business students are very familiar with case analysis, a training method often used in management training to improve analytical skills. Trainees are asked to read a case report that describes the organizational, social, and technical aspects of some organizational prob— lem (e.g., poor leadership, intergroup conflict). Each trainee prepares a report in which he or she describes the problems and offers solutions (including potential risks and benefits). Working in a group, trainees may then be asked to justify the problems they have identified and their recommendations. The trainer’s role is to facilitate the group’s learning and to help the trainees see the underlying management concepts in the case. One variation to the traditional case method is called a living case. This has trainees analyze a problem that their organization or another realfirm is currently facing.“2 In a role-playing exercise, trainees act out roles and attempt to perform the behaviors re- quired in those roles. Role—plays are commonly used in training to teach skills such as oral communication, interpersonal styles, leadership styles, performance feedback reviews, and interviewing techniques. In the popular MBA course, “Executive Power and Negotiations,” at The University of Maryland’s Robert H. Smith School of Business, students participate in role-plays every class period to enhance their negotiating skills across a variety of situa- tions (e.g., receiving jobs, raises and promotions, international deals, ethical dilemmas). Similarly, in the EMBA course “Leadership and Human Capital,” executives are Video— taped while role—playing and given feedback on their skills. Checkfree Services, Inc., uses role-plays to teach managers skills for setting expectations, handling conflict situations, and using behavioral—based interviewing.113 At the Chicago Tribune, trainees are assigned the role of a supervisor giving performance appraisal feedback to a subordinate, while other trainees play the role of the subordinate. Xerox uses role—plays in some of its training programs to teach managers how to develop a culturally diverse workforce. Role-plays are very common components of sexual harassment training programs. Behavior modeling is quickly growing as a technique for training managers on interper- sonal and supervisory skills. Many large companies such as Exxon, Westinghouse, and Union Carbide use this approach. Based on Bandura’s theory of social leaming,“4 the method consists of four consecutive components: (1) attention (watching someone perform a behavior usually through videotapes), (2) retention (processes to help the trainee retain ' what was observed), (3) motor reproduction or behavioral rehearsal (using role-plays to practice new behaviors), and (4) motivation or feedback/reinforcement (receiving feedback on the behaviors performed). The success of this approach to training is based on the ...
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