Knowledge (Wikipedia_Definition)

Knowledge (Wikipedia_Definition) - Knowledge:

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Knowledge: Knowledge is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education ; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total ; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation . Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as " justified true belief ". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories . Knowledge acquisition (su kiem duoc, thu nhan) involves complex cognitive (dua tren hieu biet, kinh nghiem) processes: perception (su nhan thuc), learning, communication, association (su lien ket, lien doi, lien tuong) and reasoning (lap luan, tranh luan). The term knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose if appropriate. See Knowledge Management for additional details on that discipline. DEFINING KNOWLEDGE (PHILOSOPHY) We suppose ourselves to possess unqualified scientific knowledge of a thing, as opposed to knowing it in the accidental way in which the sophist knows, when we think that we know the cause on which the fact depends , as the cause of that fact and of no other, and, further, that the fact could not be other than it is. Now that scientific knowing is something of this sort is evident — witness both those who falsely claim it and those who actually possess it, since the former merely imagine themselves to be, while the latter are also actually, in the condition described. Consequently the proper object of unqualified scientific knowledge is something which cannot be other than it is. Aristotle , Posterior Analytics (Book 1 Part 2) The definition of knowledge is a matter of on-going debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology(su nhan thuc). The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by Plato [1] , has it that in order for there to be knowledge at least three criteria must be fulfilled; that in order to count as knowledge, a statement must be justified , true , and believed . Some claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples allegedly demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick 's arguments for a requirement that knowledge 'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions 'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the believer's evidence is such that it logically necessitates the truth of the belief. [ citation needed
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2010 for the course BUS 12A taught by Professor Fong during the Fall '08 term at Pasadena City College.

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Knowledge (Wikipedia_Definition) - Knowledge:

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