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ESP10 Final Questions and Answers W10 Holyoak, Marcel

ESP10 Final Questions and Answers W10 Holyoak, Marcel - NEW...

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NEW MATERIAL SINCE THE MIDTERM STUDY QUESTIONS Water : (note there are no questions on pollution since this was not covered in lecture) 1. Water basics: Break down how there can be so much water on Earth yet only a small fraction is available to us. In other words what are the major water compartments and how large are they? What areas of the World are more water stressed and why? Is world water use rising or falling in total and per capita, and what compartments are increasing in usage vs. decreasing? Ocean water is 97.5% of all water. We only have access and can use 2.5% of the water which is fresh water! Of this fresh water, 79% are ice caps, 20% ground water, and 1% surface fresh water. Of this 1% fresh water, 52% are lakes, 38% soil moisture, 8% atmospheric water vapor. High Pop, High Density, food shortages = limited water = bad. India, Africa, China. Water use is rising in total per capita (usage is twice as fast as pop growth). Highest Water consumption is agriculture of 87%. Human use – ground water, rivers [off stream use {consumptive – irrigation} {non consumptive – water used and returned to the river} in stream use {hydroelectric power}] GROUNDWATER – biggest part of available water (0.29%) – CA is largest consumer of ground water. Via wells, springs, aquifers, artesian well. State water resources control board –part of EPA owns water. 2. Be able to define each of the following terms and say why they are important: groundwater, groundwater overdraft, off-stream use, in-stream use, consumptive vs. non-consumptive use, aquifer, artesian well, aquifer/groundwater recharge. Ground water = water beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in some lithologic formations. It eventually surfaces naturally like in springs that can form wetlands. Ground water over draft – over use of ground water impacting human users and environment. Lowering of water table. Withdraw faster than natural replenishment. LA basin – salt water intrusion – ocean water drawn into shallow aquifer then depleted changing natural flow bringing in salt. River – Off stream use {consumptive – irrigation} {non consumptive – water used and returned to the river} River – In stream use non consumptive {hydroelectric power}] Consumptive – water that’s evaporated, transpired, or incorp into growth of ag, municipal water uses Non-consumptive – constant flowing, water returns that are used for recreation-golf/fisheries Artesian well – confined aquifer that flows upward through well without need of pumping. Natural pressure allows upward movement Aquifer/groundwater recharge – water moves downward from surface water to ground water. Natural recharge by rain/snowmelt/ surface waters. Can be impacted by humans 3. Why does California have a water problem? What major uses contribute to the problem, and what are some potential solutions?
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