Central Texas College week 1 lecture(1) (1).doc - Central...

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Central Texas CollegeU.S. History (1301)Spring 2011Class Week 1 NotesPassage to AlaskaHunters moved north in Asia in search of large mammalsAround 12,000 B.C., hunters walk across Bering Strait into North AmericaHunters arrived at the Great Plains and find lush grasslands and millions of large mammalsThe Demise of the Big MammalsClovis hunters develop long spears and stone blades for more effective huntingThe animal slaughter beginsSome historians debate the role of the Clovis hunters in killing these mammalsThe Archaic Period: A World Without Big Mammals, 9000 B.C.-- 1000 B.C.Absence of big mammals forces people to find new sources of food, clothing and shelterThe Archaic Period lasts for several hundred human generationsBands of Archaic people migrated in search of food according to seasonSome plant cultivation beings around 2500 B.C. The First Sedentary Communities, 1000 B.C.Sedentary communities developed in different places at different times Poverty Point, Mississippi: an important early sedentary communityEgalitarian social structureHopewell Mounds developed in Ohio and Illinois. Corn Transforms the SouthwestThe Aztec city of Teotihuacán: population near 100,000, paved roads, complex housing systemGradual domestication of cornimportance of corn in culturecorn growing moves north to Mexican desertThe Diffusion of CornCorn moved slowly through North America because of weather and labor demands of the cropHunting and gathering peoples slowly learned the necessity of agricultural laborPopulation Growth After 800 A.D.Corn stimulated population growth by improving physical health
Increased population caused people to clear more land, which in turn allowed for higher populationTrade system evolvesCahokia: The Hub of Mississippian CultureBy 1000 A.D., Cahokia had become a major center of trade, religion and politicsVast and complex system of mounds and buildingsSharp class divisions were present at Cohokia American Beginnings in Eurasia and AfricaThe domestication of a variety of crops (wheat, oats, peas, olives, etc.) and animals spread through African and EurasiaDisease wrought havoc on Eurasian populationsEurope in FermentGrowing population put pressure on resources of land which in turn caused political unrestShortage of tillable land created a large, wandering peasant classInvention of movable type created communication revolutionBy the 15th century, Europeans were sharply divided along class and education lines andwholly cut-off for the worlds across the Atlantic Ocean Europeans to the New World; Columbus and the Discovery of America Christopher Columbus reached the West Indies on October 12, 1492by the fifteenth century, western Europeans discover direct routes to the EastPrince Henry of Portugal sponsored improvements in navigation and voyages of explorationSmall Pox and measles result in 90% death rate among Native Americans.

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