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Extrasolar Planets and Planetary Systems

Extrasolar Planets and Planetary Systems - E xtrasolar...

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Extrasolar Planets and planetary systems : Lamontagne January-20-10 1:36 PM Our solar system... A prototype The challenge of detecting exoplanets The quest for Exoplanets One of the oldest scientific problems Discussed by Herodotus, Kant, Goethe, Fontenelle, Huyghens and Flammarion Known facts about our solar system What is a planet? o Small icy bodies about the same size as Pluto orbiting the Sun further than Pluto. o If pluto is a planet, so should all these planets o Planet = wandering star Big Massive enough to be round, and to have cleared all the debris on its orbit Must orbit the sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune o Not planets Ceres, Pluto, Eris o Small rocky planets near the sun at d<2 AU o Giant gaseous planets between d=5AU and d=30AU o Small ice-rock worlds from d=30 AU to d/=/50 AU o <<parking lot>> of comet's nucleurs at d/=/50000AU (Oort Cloud) o Eccentricity - orbit , number between 0-1. 0 means a perfect flat circle o Inclination of orbital plane is the degrees above or below the plane of Earths orbit other planets orbit o Orbits of the planets and their moons are ~coplanar, ~circular, same direction o Gas giants have solid cores, because of the high pressure, either metallic or rocky The challenges of seeing exoplanets Jupiter is one billion times less luminous than the sun Trying to see objects billions of times less bright than stars that are really far away
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Direct images Planets reflect light from the parent star Techniques to improve direct images Adaptive optics (AO) o Using large telescopes and then correcting for the blur caused by the atmosphere Dynamical perturbation Velocity and position of the parent star are perturbed by one or more orbiting planets Two objects with the same masses --> amplitudes are equal Two objects with different masses--> different amplitudes The velocity of the star is obtained with the Doppler shift technique
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