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Unformatted text preview: Planetological foundations for the origin of life January-25-10 1:35 PM Definition of the Universe • Space that contains all matter and energy in existence • Everything that ever was, is or will be • Everything we can perceive and more • All mass that exists, and all forces and energies Building Blocks of the Universe • The behaviour of very large objects frequently depends on the laws that govern the smallest components Fundamental Particles of Matter • All matter is composed of atoms • Atoms are ordered of subatomic particles o The nucleus contains protons and neutrons o Electrons in shells around the nucleus • Electrons (type of lepton) are true fundamental particles • Protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles, quarks • Modern theory - Standard model o There are 12 fundamental matter particle types and their antiparticles o Matter particles are divided into two classes • Leptons • Quarks o 6 particles in each class and 6 antiparticles o There are also • Gluons • Photons • W bosons • Z bosons • Force carrier particles that are responsible for strong, electromagnetic and weak forces respectively Anti-Matter • Every quark and lepton has a corresponding anti-quark and anti-lepton • Anti electrons (positron) are identical to an ordinary electron • When a particle and antiparticle (corresponding) meet, the result is mutual annihilation • Combined mass turns to energy E=mc2 • Process also works in advance (energy -> matter/antimatter) Fundamental Forces in the Universe • Interactions in the universe governed by the four fundamental forces o Electromagnetic • Acts between electrically charged particles Electricity Magnitism Light • Strength 1/37 • Infinite range • Particle - photon o Strong Nuclear Force •...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2010 for the course ANAT Anat 182 taught by Professor Vali during the Winter '10 term at McGill.
- Winter '10