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Unformatted text preview: Planetological foundations for the origin of life January-25-10 1:35 PM Definition of the Universe Space that contains all matter and energy in existence Everything that ever was, is or will be Everything we can perceive and more All mass that exists, and all forces and energies Building Blocks of the Universe The behaviour of very large objects frequently depends on the laws that govern the smallest components Fundamental Particles of Matter All matter is composed of atoms Atoms are ordered of subatomic particles o The nucleus contains protons and neutrons o Electrons in shells around the nucleus Electrons (type of lepton) are true fundamental particles Protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles, quarks Modern theory - Standard model o There are 12 fundamental matter particle types and their antiparticles o Matter particles are divided into two classes Leptons Quarks o 6 particles in each class and 6 antiparticles o There are also Gluons Photons W bosons Z bosons Force carrier particles that are responsible for strong, electromagnetic and weak forces respectively Anti-Matter Every quark and lepton has a corresponding anti-quark and anti-lepton Anti electrons (positron) are identical to an ordinary electron When a particle and antiparticle (corresponding) meet, the result is mutual annihilation Combined mass turns to energy E=mc2 Process also works in advance (energy -> matter/antimatter) Fundamental Forces in the Universe Interactions in the universe governed by the four fundamental forces o Electromagnetic Acts between electrically charged particles Electricity Magnitism Light Strength 1/37 Infinite range Particle - photon o Strong Nuclear Force...
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- Winter '10