October 13 - October 13 Midterm Stuff Up to the 20th of...

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October 13 Midterm Stuff Up to the 20 th of October (inclusive) Midterm on the 21 st Stewart Bio S1/4 6:30 – 8:00 PM Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Organelle Biogenesis o Most of the proteins are encoded in the nucleus o A limited number is encoded in the organelle Genes in the Nucleus o Inherited from both parents Mendelian Genes in the organelle o Maternally inherited Mitochondrial DNA coding functions vary among groups of organisms o Different genes have been transferred to the nucleus from the endosymbiont o The genes in the nucleus or mitochondria can differ between species Organelles have their own genetic system o Have ribosomes and can therefore transcribe and translate their own genes Respiratory complexes o Some are coded in mitochondrial DNA in some organisms but not others Coding functions of mitochondrial DNA differ between groups of organisms, but there are some genes that are coded by mitochondrial DNA in all cases Mitochondria are involved in aging o Mice were genetically engineered with an error-prone mtDNA polymerase, were found to age rapidly Accumulates errors Chloroplast Genomes (cpDNA) o Tend to be larger than mitochondrial DNA o 100-200 genes o 100-200kb o inherited in most plants only through the female parent o non-Mendellian Lecture 14- Genes, Genomics and Chromosomes – Eukaryotic Chromosomes Linear o As opposed to bacteria etc. which tend to be circular
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Chromatin o The DNA of the chromosome and the proteins it is tightly associated with o During interphase DAN exists as a nucleoprotein complex known as
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October 13 - October 13 Midterm Stuff Up to the 20th of...

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