ECE405L_handout_Spring_2010

ECE405L_handout_Spring_2010 - ECE 405L Electronic...

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Unformatted text preview: ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory What to do each week 1. Turn on equipment to be used in this week's experiment. a. Computer System (and log in) b. HP 8590 Spectrum Analyzer c. AG 54622 Oscilloscope d. HP 3312 Function generator e. AG 33120 Arbitrary Function generator f. KH 3100 Active Filter 2. Configure and/or Confirm Operation of Equipment. a. HP 8590 (Perform Frequency Calibration) b. AG 54622 (Set to Default Settings) c. HP 3312 (Set Blue buttons to in positions, Set all modulator buttons to “out" position, set symmetry knob and trigger knob to counterclockwise locked position) d. HP 3312 (Verify output waveform(s)— i. Connect BNC—BNC RG58 cable between output of function generator and input 1 of oscilloscope. ii. Set output for a sinewave at 1 MHz with a peak amplitude of l volt. iii. Observe in the time domain and capture the screen using lntuilink to add to your report. iv. Observe in the frequency domain and capture screen using Benchlink to add to your report. v. Look for correct amplitudes and frequencies in the time domain. vi. Look of amplitudes, frequencies, and harmonics in the frequency domain. 3. Perform Required Measurements for Experiments. 0. Start with the Time domain measurements. b. Perform Frequency domain measurements starting with the FFT then go to the real time spectrum measurement. c. Record and save all measurements for every waveform. Rhc 04/07/09 ECE 405L ElecTronic Communications LobordTory lnTuilink Log-in Procedure Initializing lnTuilink LefT click on MS—WORD 2007 Icon on deskTop. Uncheck ony boxes on The Help screen Tth oppedrs firsT. LefT click on OK. LefT click on “Office BuTTon" in upper leTT side of screen. LefT click on “Word OpTions” buTTon. LefT click on “TrusT CenTer”. LefT click on “TrusT CenTer SeTTings”. LefT click on The bubble “Endble All Macros” Then click on OK. . Now exiT ouT of Word 2007. TO. Re-enTer MS—Word 2007 by lefT clicking on The MS-Word 2007 icon. l l .LefT click on “Add—ins" Tdb CT The Top of your screen. l2.The Icons for lnTuilink for The oscilloscope are now visible on The upper leTT side 05 0 Toolbar. ‘OPOF‘QQP‘WNT‘ Using lnTuilink To CapTure Screen ShoTs l. AT The beginning of each session you musT esToblish o communicoTions link beTween The compuTer and The oscilloscope. This is done by firsT leTT clicking on The TirsT lcon dfTer The AGS4622 name. This firsT Icon looks like Two insTrumenTs wiTh 0 wire beTween Them. 2. A window appears Tth shows The differenT inTerfoces which mighT be insleled in The compuTer sysTem. 3. LefT click on The “NdTiondl InsTrumenT GPIB" inTerfdce (The one dCTUdlly insleled inTo our compuTers) To highlighT iT Then click on OK. 4. Now Cl new window appears wiTh d buTTon in The lower righT ThoT soys “Search”. Click on The “Search” buTTon. You will see The program sedrches Through all of The inTerfdces looking for The oscilloscope. IT should find iT. 5. LefT click on The AGS4622 line To highlighT iT Then click on OK. You should now be communicoTing wiTh The oscilloscope. 6. To copTure 0 screen from The oscilloscope lefT click on The Icon Tth looks like 0 camera. Version l Rhc 04/07/09 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory AG 54622A Digital Oscilloscope with FFT If a 1 VRMS sine waveform is measured in the time domain on the oscilloscope it will measure as 0 dBV in the frequency domain. This can also be measured as 1.414 Vp or 2.828 Vpp. Measuring in the frequency domain on the oscilloscope will perform like an AC voltmeter which reads in RMS. Looking at the definition of dB’s shows 1-0 VRMS (the measured value) dBVRMS = 20 Logo ------------- = 20 L0g10(1)= 20 (0)= 0 1.0 VRMS If the voltage measured in through a 50 Q terminator then you can convert to dBM, which is considered the industry standard unit for frequency spectrums, and is usually defined for a 50 0 system. So, V (measured in VRMS) dBMw = dBM = 20 LOglo ------------------------------- J17}? V2 Where P = —--- or V = \[PR R Vmeasured Vmeasured dBM = 20 Logo ----------------------- = 20 Logo _____._-_-________--_____ \[(509)(lmW) \[(.05 Vmeasured dBM = 20 Logo ------------------ = 20 Logo (4.472) VM 0.223606 Then, If VM = 1 VRMS dBM = 20 Log10 (4.472) (1) dBM = 20 (0.65) = 13.01004 Therefore, if you measure the dBVs from the oscilloscope/FFT you add 13.01 to that value to get the equivalent in dBM. R. Cockrum 2006 Voltage to dB Table + :5. at .x/r—pm\’\‘3 Volts(peak) Volts(rms) dBV dBm (into 50 ohms) 10 7.071 17 30 1 0.7071 -3 10 0.31618 0.223606 13 0 0.1 0.07071 —23 -10 0.01 0.007071 ~43 -30 0.001 0.0007071 -63 —50 0.0001 0.00007071 -83 —70 dB is the ratio between 2 values of power or voltage. dBm or dBV are individually measured or calculated values. Voltage to dB Table V V 0|sz 20 '0910 1vo|t dBm: 20|Og10 0.001 volt Volts dBV dBm 1O . 20 8O 1 0 60 0.1 -20 40 0.01 -40 20 0.001 -60 0 0.0001 -80 '20 To Double Power just add 3. To Double Voltage just add 6. To halve power just subtract 3. To halve voltage just subtract 6. dB is the ratio between 2 values of power or voltage. dBm or dBV are individually measured or calculated values. dB Examples For a 1 volt peak Sinewave Linear 1 volt-peak RMS 0.7071 volts 2 sided 0.353 volts / / 0 F 0 F -F 0 F FFT on Oscilloscope Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer 0.7071 volts (RMS) . 0.353 volts (RMS) -3 dBV 3.97 dBm 3.97dBm 0 F -F 0 F Rhc 3/2007 A Tabie of _ Bessel Fun sons V .4...» m mwfivbaw .— 333 33'! " ,05 .0!" <— 33“? ,3: v 3 3?. d '0 ’ \ ¢ { 3:» {m a» a: M *4 3 ‘33 m " s 26:- .65 2:: F- , ' .3? .2? .EE ,0!" .33 .33 V , .q .34 .16 S 4 ".36 18 .4? .3? .39 9.2 Ci: i a»: $$k§$é$fififiax$fifi m MI .02 .33, “ G3 .6! ” 134 :0! Qfigkfififi Q m .42 .33 £7} 3 a?» 1 Cl?) Mi 433% .8» $41 ’84 a m C33 M 8 a .n .m 32 m“ 3 i ”.34 ~33 . 35 .43 34 .03” 4%.»: g ‘82 .83 312 :01" ix: Q» 31.». 3»: «Q d a a .m‘ ~~ ‘ 4 4 :fi 8 3 ».ES 4.23 .35 .36. .39 ,26 :13 MAAA$P. :Qfififikfia .3 5.2 - 3* ~ 34 W $2 .33 40 29 £3 .82 3}!“ S A: "“ {)4 ‘35 ~ 339 .23 :49 .3: 3:8. :63 31‘ S .5 .3 ~ :33 - . f5 .33 :39 ‘33 ,3} 04 33% 63 333 ~ 3‘: ~23 6%? :33 .35! 3% .E1 ‘85 ‘82 3f” Modulation Factor (Beta) for Bessel Functions of the First Kind Zero Crossings _________________________________——————————————-———-——— Carrier Sideband Number ___________________________.________——————————— 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ______________________‘_____.______________————-————————————-— 1St Null 2.40 3.83 5.14 6.38 7.59 8.77 9.93 2m| Null 5.52 7.02 8.42 9.76 11.06 12.34 13.59 3rd Null 8.65 10.17 11.62 13.02 14.37 15.70 17.00 4th Null 11.79 13.32 14.80 16.22 17.62 18.98 20.32 5th Null 14.93 16.47 17.96 19.41 20.83 22.21 23.59 6“1 Null 18.07 19.61 21.12 22.58 24.02 25.43 26.82 7th Null 21.21 22.76 24.27 25.75 27.20 28.63 30.03 8th Null 24.35 25.90 27.42 28.91 30.37 31.81 33.23 ' R. Cockrum 2006 V 88""IOBMHQ WEE—”M RECEIUER TUNED T0 954MB? ’5}. ‘15.] mm; W SPECTRUM ‘Dommfl PM)?” #1 SC A BEMObmnmfi $‘1'STEM Bauopnss ._ ._ FILTER 50 max“: bsmwutfirofl TUNED To me o .wamzum 00mm» 6'? a PLoT B Tune 90mm» Purl” C Want a SPECTRUM Do mam F101" G o T‘ME Damn“) Pu)? F5 0-? KHE H MPH Fl ("5'33 9 7mm ‘hmsv 15mm» Not A ANTemn €16er / Pu. RECEWER Fm Fm“ END Damooomnrz ONE Pm: EACH SDG'CBEEIHL RDS 57m: DQGITAk PM DISPLAY DEmDumm g $DMPL1FIED ANALOG- FM BROADCAST smnmu RECEIVER. " ~ LEW wear L+R ("L’t rmc. LEFT N IQ. SxmmxfieD Fm BQOADCHST- smnord mpmsmmerc BNTENJA V stgnofl Fm as - > Pawea , ampunerz weaken. C53 q \ 3 mu £3 30623qu /' /9u.or /L_ R R 95 / MIC. . 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