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Unformatted text preview: California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory
Spring Quarter 2010 Course Instructor R.H.Cockrum <[email protected]>
Office: 9—324c Office Phone: 909—869—2510
Office Hours: MW 10:00am to 10:50am, Tu 11:00 to 12:40pm,
W 3:00 to 3:50pm Course Title: ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Course Objectives: To study and implement the basic theory of the design and analysis of communications systems. To learn the operation of laboratory instruments used in mod ern
communications systems. Course Textbook: Recommended—— Any college level text on Electronic Communications. Prerequisites: Completion of ECE 405
Co—requisite: Course Grading: Lab Participation lOO
Laboratory Reports (8 experiments) 80
Total points possible 180 Lab reports are due one week after completing work.
Reports submitted more than two weeks after experiment will have points deducted. Course Grading is done using a curve technique.
NO CELL PHONES IN CLASS! Points may be deducted.
Last day to turn in late assignments: June 1, 2010.
Students found to be cheating on any experim
a failing grade for the course. starting ent will receive ECE 405L Electronic Communication Systems Laboratory 1. Review of Laboratory Equipment
Oscilloscope
Spectrum Analyzer
Oscillators
Computers
Cables and Connectors II. Review of Communications Theory Domains
Fourier Series
Waveform Analysis (Analog & Digital)
Oscillators
Modulation Types AM FM PM Quad Ortho
Multiplexing TDM FDM PDM 111. Application of Modulation Techniques
OnOff Keying (OOK) Modulation
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Amplitude Demodulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Frequency Demodulation (FM)
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) IV. Special Topics
' Information (Patents, FCC, and HP)
Parts
Band Names and Frequencies
Band Plans
Propagation and Antennas
Receivers and Transmitters California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory PARTS Each student workstation will need the following electronic parts
supplied by each student for each experiment: 1) 4 each 48—60 inch BNC to BNC RG 58 cables. 2) 2 each 48—60 inch BNC to Clips RG 58 cables 3) Clip Leads — 10 recommended
Experiment 5, 6 and 7 require some miscellaneous parts (resistors, capacitors, IC's). These required parts will be specified on
individual experiment sheets one week before they are needed. ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Report Format 1. Title Page a. Show Title of Experiment and Experiment Number
b. Show Student Name and ling], c. Show Date of Writeup \4 gm 0 ﬂ
2. State Primary Objective of Experiment —— in your own words
3. State Secondary Objective of Experiment ~ in your own words
4. Show Prelab Calculations
5. Show Experimental Data/Plots 6. Explain Experimental Results , l l .
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory
Experiment #1 Properties of Waveforms
in the Time and Frequency Domains Objective: To investigate the mathematical properties of various waveforms using common communications
laboratory equipment. Prelab: 1) Calculate the average, RMS, peak, and peak to peak voltage values for the following waveforms in the time domain then estimate their signature of each waveform
in the frequency domain: a) A sine—wave with a total period of l microsecond. b) A square—wave(50% duty cycle rectangular pulse)
with a total period of l microsecond. c) A triangular wave with a total period of lus. Lab: Using the equipment in the laboratory, measure and record the average, RMS, peak, and peak to peak voltages
for the waveforms described in the Pre—Lab section. Make plots of the time and frequency domains (both the
continuous and discrete) for each waveform. Post—Lab: In your report explain the differences between your
calculated and your measured values. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engi neering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #2 Properties of OnOff—Keyed (OOK) Periodically Gated Waveforms waveforms: a) A sine—wave with a total period of l microsecond with
a peak amplitude of 1000 mV.:iV Lab: Using the e
time and frequen
transform) quipment in the laboratory, cy (using both the continuou
domains for each waveform describ measure and record the
8 series and discrete
ed in the pre—lab. Post—Lab: In your report explain the differences betw
calculated and your measu een your
red values. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #3 Properties of Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation Waveforms Objective: To investigate the mathematical properties of
Amplitude Modulation/Demodulation waveforms using
Common communications laboratory equipment. Pre—labzl) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for an amplitude
modulated waveform having a carrier of 1 MHz,
modulation of 10 KHz, and modulation percentage of: a) 50%
b) 100% Set the amplitude of the carrier at 1 volt peak. 2) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for an amplitude
modulated waveform having a carrier of 1 MHz,
modulation of 100 KHz, and modulation percentage
of: a) 50% b) 100%
Set the amplitude of the carrier at 1 volt peak. 3) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for a switching
amplitude demodulated waveform. You will need to obtain
two different diodes for this part of the experiment.
One should be a power diode (i.e. lN400l) and the
other a small signal diode (i.e. lN4l48L _'l—[— \N Mowcvjf f
(El < S 4) Calculate the resulting Fourier Spectrum when you pass
the waveforms of part 1 through the demodulator of part
3. 4° q~ X
QL3§L‘S\ Q? Lab: Using the equipment in the laboratory construct the amplitude
modulated waveforms described in the pre—lab then measure and
record the Fourier Spectrums for each part described above. Make plots of the time and frgguency (both continuous and
I u l .\_—
discrete) domains for each waveform. Bring the necessary parEE’ES—construct the demodulator designed in the pre—lab
part 2. Pass the waveforms through the demodulator and
record all appropriate waveforms. Prove the Nyquist Criteria
by showing a plot in the frequency domain. Post—Lab: In your report explain the differences between your
calculated and your measured values. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engi neering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #4 Properties of Frequency Modulation and FSK Waveforms 2) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for a fre having a carrier of 1 MHz, modulation of 50 KHz,
index of: Set the amplitude of the carrier at 1 volt peak. Determine the
necessary amplitude of the modula tion. Estimate the Fourier Spectrum f or an frequency modulated waveform
a sinusoidal carrier of 1 MHz, a square—wave modulation of 10 Hz. Post—Lab: plain the differences between your calculated and
your measured values. Mark
explanations. wwkﬂrﬁt
L IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllll———* quency modulated waveform
and modulation having Signai 4.7K 10K 4.7K
my AJK' ll Phase Detector Test ~
Point um~ FM Subcan'ier Demodulator
ECE 495:. LMSE‘S ‘ I“ 10:33: Unampﬁﬁed‘oufput mail: California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #5 Properties of Frequency Demodulation Objective: To investigate the mathematical properties of Frequency Demodulation
waveforms using common communications laboratory equipment. Prelab: 1) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for an frequency modulated waveform having a
carrier of 9:1 MHz! modulation of 10 KHz, and modulation index of: atfﬂl \ k! Set the amplitude of the carrier at 1 volt peak. 2) Explain the operation of the PLL demodulator used in the schematic given your
several weeks ago. Lab: Using the equipment in the laboratory or bring the necessary electronic
_ parts, construct the fre uency modulated waveforms described in the prelab then
measure and record the Fourier Spectrum (both the continuous and discrete). Make . m
plots of the time and frequency domains for each wavEfSEmT“BrTng—th€_ﬁecessary
parts to construct the demodulator eSigned in the prelab part 2. Pass the waveforms through the demodulator and record all appropriate waveforms. Post—Lab: In your report explain the differences between your
calculated and your measured values. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #6
Properties of Frequency Demodulation and Frequency Division Multiplexing Objective: To investigate the mathematical properties of Frequency Demodulation
waveforms using common communications laboratory equipment. \ Prelab: 1) Calculate the Fourier Spectrum for an frequency modulated waveform having a
carrier of 0.1 MHz, modulation of l KHz, and modulation index of: a) l
b) 2.54
Set the amplitude of the carrier at 1 volt peak. 2) Explain the operation of the PLL demodulator used in the scheiitic given your several weeks ago. ;3 a £xw‘afsgn munkxM3 wﬁkk UNQNQ
assign’m mmoveviapplva '(retIMMMa, ranges *9 differed:
3) a) Describe Frequency Division Multiplexing.3'15"“(4r
”MAW“: ' b) Describe the 67 KHZ demodulator circuit.  c) Describe the SCA test system.
SCH: Smbskhaha /* wmmmkaihu d) Describe preparations of your demodulator circuit. AWWYUV'! {4((04/ Lab: Using the equipment in the laboratory or bring the necessary electronic
parts, construct the frequency modulated waveforms described in the prelab then
measure and record the Fourier Spectrum (both the continuous and discrete). Make
plots of the time and frequency domains for each waveform. Bring the necessary
parts to construct the demodulator designed in the prelab part 2. Pass the
waveforms through the demodulator and record all appropriate waveforms. Connect the circuit to the FM receiver and demodulate an over the air signal. Describe
your results of demodulating the signal. reqwteW{S 4° receive SCA ckmc
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$(A HL» MARIMBA California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #7
Properties of Binary Phase Shift Keyed Modulation (BPSK)
Objective: To investigate the properties of BPSK modulation waveforms using
common communications laboratory equipment.
Lab:
1. Using the Waveform Editor Program of IntuiLink create a Binary
Phase Shift Keyed waveform. Set the amplitude of the waveform to 1 volt and the frequency to lOOKHz. 2. Send the waveform you created in part 1 to the AG 33120 Arbitrary
Function Generator. 3. Evaluate your waveform in the time domain. 4. Evaluate your waveform in the frequency domain using the EFT
analyzer. 5. Evaluate your waveform in the frequency domain using the Real
Time Spectrum analyzer. 6. What is the baud rate of your signal? California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #7 Properties of Binary Phase Shift Keyed Modulation (BPSK) Supplement
With respect to your equipment:
1. Describe the operation of the software used.
2. Describe the physical hardware used.
With respect to the signal you create:
Describe the bandwidth of the signal components.
Describe the baud rate or the signal you created. Describe the amplitudes of the signal components.
Describe the frequencies of the signal components. iwaI—J In digital communications, symbol rate (also known as baud or modulation rate) is the number of
symbol changes (signalling events) made to the transmission medium per second using a digitally
modulated signal or a line code. The Symbol rate is measured in bﬂd (Bd) or symbols/second. In
the case of a line code, the symbol rate is the pulse rate in pulses/second. Each symbol can
represent or convey one or several b_it of data. The symbol rate is related to but should not be
confused with Gross bitrate expressed in bit/s. A symbol is a state or signiﬁcant condition of the communication channel that persists for a ﬁxed
period of time. A sending device places symbols on the channel at a ﬁxed and known symbol
rate,and the receiving device has the job of detecting the sequence of symbols in order to
reconstruct the transmitted data. There may be a direct correspondence between a symbol and a
small unit of sta (for example, each symbol may encode one or several binary bits) or the data
may be represented by the transitions between symbols or even by a sequence of many symbols. The symbol duration time, also known as unit interval, can be directly measured as the time between transitions by looking into an eye diagram of an oscilloscope. The symbol duration time TS
can be calculated as: i
f. where f, is the symbol rate. A simple example: A baud rate of 1 de = 1,000 Ed is synonymous to a symbol rate of
1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second,
and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration
time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond. The term baud rate has sometimes incorrectly been used to mean bit rate, since these rates are the
same in old modems as well as in the simplest digital communication links using only one bit per
symbol, such that binary "0" is represented by one symbol, and binary "1" by another symbol. In
more advanced modems and data transmission techniques, a symbol may have more than two
states, so it may represent more than one binary bit (a binary bit always represents exactly two
states). For this reason, the baud rate value will often be lower than the gross bit rate. Example of use and misuse of "baud rate "1 It is correct to write "the baud rate of my COM port is
9,600" if we mean that the bit rate is 9,600 bit/s, since there is one bit per symbol in this case. It is
not correct to write "the baud rate of Ethernet is 100 Mbaud" or "the baud rate of my modem is
56,000" if we mean bit rate. See below for more details on these techniques. The difference
between baud (or signalling rate) and the data rate (or bit rate) is like a man using a single
semaphore ﬂag who can move his arm to a new position once each second, so his signalling rate
(baud) is one symbol per second. The ﬂag can be held in one of eight distinct positions: Straight up,
45° left, 90° left, 135° left, straight down (which is the rest state, where he is sending no signal),
135° right, 90° right, and 45° right. Each signal carries three bits of information. It takes three
binary digits to encode eight states. The data rate is three bits per second. In the Navy, more than
one ﬂag pattern and arm can be used at once, so the combinations of these produce many symbols,
each conveying several bits, a higher data rate. U3 U] 00 Experiment 8 Instructions . You may use any notes or textbooks.
. You may use ONLY the HP8590 Spectrum Analyzer and the PC on your bench during experiment. . You may NOT use the oscilloscope.
. Using one BNC to BNC RG58 cable, connect the input of the spectrum analyzer to the antenna port on your workbench. The
primarily harmonic of unknown signal is located between 100 KHZ and l MHZ. . You have ONLY 50 minutes to complete all work.
. You must describe the unknown waveform in the time domain from the data you measured in the frequency domain. . Write—up your results and conclusions on 1 or 2 pages.
. Place your write—up on Bench 12 by the end of your 50 minutes.
. At the end of your time: a. Reset your spectrum analyzer, but DO NOT turn it off. Leave
the HP 8590 ‘ON.’ b. Log off your computer. Leave the computer on! 0. Clean up your bench and leave room quickly so that the next
group can enter the lab. Graded reports ca be picked up during my ﬁnals week ofﬁce hours. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 405L Electronic Communications Laboratory Experiment #8 Signatures of Radio Signals
Objective: To investigate the signature of an unknown signal. Lab: Using the equipment in the laboratory investigate the signal present at the
antenna terminals on your bench. Make a plot of the frequency domain for the
waveform. Describe the characteristics of the signal seen. In your report (1 or 2 pages) explain what the signal looks like in
the Time Domain. Show All important data about signal. You may use any of your notes or the textbook and your computer. You may ONLY use the Spectrum Analyzer to evaluate the unknown signal. ...
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