sociology test one

sociology test one - Sociology- scientific study of society...

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Sociology- scientific study of society 1700’s – Industrial Revolution; involved new innovations which changed work and organization of societies; when analyzed, people realized times were changing, this caused some disruptions 1854 – Auguste Comte coined the term “sociologie” - by applying scientific method to sociology, we can determine governing laws of human behavior and how societies work - by studying these laws we can see what goes wrong in society and fix it 1776 – Adam Smith (18 th century) - Wealth of Nations (his book) in April 1776 - “Laissez faire” economics (leave it alone) - promoting economic affairs without government - laws of supply and demand - the independence from Britain fueled Smith to publish his book and this is no coincidence History aspect: colonies were not to compete with home country mercantile system Ex: Navigation Act and Trade Act restricted colonies to who they could do business with but were not enforced well, so colonists did whatever they wanted Ex: French and Indian War- after both countries bankrupt, so Great Britain enforced more laws to get money from colonies (this was the reason John Hancock signed so big); the Hancock family was very wealthy and these taxes hurt his business - Adam Smith continued…. - “mercantile system isn’t working” - government shouldn’t control system, just let it flow (the economy) - he also argued in his book about the HIGH DIVISION OF LABOR (everyone is specialized) - efficient way = assembly line (piece by piece) - industrial revolution brought about specialization in almost every division of life - thought of as first sociologist, but also economist 1818-1883 – Karl Marx - others say he was the first sociologist, but also historian and philosopher for socialism and communist; political activist - overly simplistic and not well thought - said some very accurate about capitalism HIS IDEAS : 1. Economic determinism -- “economic system of any society is the most important because it determines all other systems ” (ex: education, family structure, political) 2. Historical Materialism – veudalism – capitalism – communism - One economic system is overthrown and replaced by another system
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- Leaders become wealthy not by their own will, but by the people’s work (ex: kings, emperors, etc. (who oppress their people)) Marx’s ideas form the basis of 1/3 basic perspectives of sociology: 1. CONFLICT THEORY - The idea that society consists of different groups who struggle with one another to attain the scarce societal resources that are considered valuable, be they money, power, prestige, or the authority to impose one’s values on society - Social life & change - Competing for power and resources - Most influential in Europe - An example are interest groups such as unions, or people trying to get something to change - In USA, 20 th century, WWII, protest movement (50’s-60’s) One conflict theorist from this time period is C. Wright Mills 1. The Sociological Imagination (his book): be able to see as
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sociology test one - Sociology- scientific study of society...

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