Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle...

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Chapter 13 – Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle Offspring Acquire Genes from Parents by Inheriting Chromosomes Inheritance of Genes - Hereditary units called genes account for family resemblance - Inherited information is passed on in the form of gene’s specific sequence of DNA nucleotides - Gametes – Reproductive cells that transmit genes from one generation to the next - DNA of a eukaryotic cell is packaged into chromosomes in the nucleus - Gene’s locus – Gene’s specific location along the length of a chromosome Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction - Organisms that reproduce asexually are exact copies of themselves - Asexual Reproduction – A single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring - Clone – A group of genetically identical individuals - Sexual Reproduction – Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents Fertilization and Meiosis Alternate in Sexual Life Cycles Life Cycle – Generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells - Because chromosomes differ in size, centromere position, and staining patterns, they can be distinguished from one another by microscopic examination - Karyotype – Ordered display of chromosomes organized by length [long to short] - Homologous Chromosomes – Pair of chromosomes in a karyotype; Same length, centromere position & staining pattern; Carry genes controlling same inherited characters - X & Y chromosomes are sex chromosomes; Other ones are autosomes - Inherit one chromosome of each pair from one parent - Diploid Cell – Any cell with two chromosome sets (2n) Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle - Human life cycle begins when a haploid sperm fuses with a haploid egg - Mitosis of the zygote and its descendants generates all the somatic cells of the body - Gametes are the only cells in the human body not produced by mitosis
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course BIO 1101 at Cornell.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle...

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