Microbial Genetics Quiz

Microbial Genetics Quiz - Quiz on Microbial Genetics...

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Quiz on Microbial Genetics Vocabulary: Bacteriophages (Phages) – A virus that infects bacteria Lytic Cycle – Phage reproductive cycle that culminates in the death of the host cell Virulent Phage – A phage that reproduces only by a lytic cycle Restriction Enzymes – Cellular enzymes that cut up foreign DNA [usually phage DNA] when it enters a bacteria; Restricts the ability of the phage to infect the bacterium Lysogenic Cycle – Allows replication of the phage genome without destroying the host cell Temperate Phages – Phages that can reproduce using either the lytic or lysogenic cycle [ex: lambda] Prophage – A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on a bacterial chromosome Retroviruses – An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome Reverse Transcriptase – Transcribes an RNA template into a DNA strand Provirus – A viral genome that is permanently inserted into a host genome Prions – An infectious agent that is a misfolded version of normal cellular protein; Increase in number by converting correctly folded proteins into more prions Recombinant DNA – DNA molecules formed when segments of DNA from two different sources are combined in vitro Biotechnology – Manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products Genetic Engineering – The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes Plasmids – Small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome; small number of genes Gene Cloning – The production of multiple copies of a single gene Restriction Enzymes (restriction endonucleases) – Cut DNA molecules at a limited number of specific locations Restriction Site – Particular short sequence of DNA that a restriction enzyme recognizes [then cuts both DNA strands at precise points within the restriction site] Pseudogenes – Former genes that have accumulated mutations over along and have become nonfunctional Repetitive DNA – Consists of sequences that are present in multiple copies in the genome Transposable Elements – A segment of DNA that can move within the genome of a cell by means of a DNA or RNA intermediate Transposition – Transposable element moves from one site in a cell’s DNA to a different target site by a type of recombination process Transposons – One type of eukaryotic transposable element; Move within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate [cut and paste mechanism] Retrotransposons – Other type of eukaryotic transposable element; Move by means of an RNA intermediate that is a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA Capsule – Sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein; Enables prokaryotes to adhere to their substrate or to other individuals in a colony; May help with protection/dehydration Fimbriae – Hairlike protein appendages that allow prokaryotes to stick to their substrate or one another
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course BIO 1101 at Cornell.

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Microbial Genetics Quiz - Quiz on Microbial Genetics...

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