Quest_Biochem1 - GeneralOrganicChemistry: Carbon

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General Organic Chemistry: Carbon - Covalently bonds with itself (forms backbone) - Can form double or triple bonds Isomers - Structural Isomers  - Geometric Isomers (must have a double bond, cis vs. trans) Optical/Stereo/Enantiomers - Non-superimposible mirror images Functional Groups: Alcohol (-OH) - Ending: -ol - Methyl Alcohol *AKA: methanol, wood alcohol *Originally made by distilling wood - Ethanol *Produced in fermentation by yeast  Carbonyl (C=O) - Aldehyde (Aldoses) *Ending: -al *Reducing - Ketones (Ketoses) *Ending: -one *Non-reducing Carboxyl (-COOH) - Carboxylic Acid - AKA: Ethanoic Acid - Dissociates into COO- and H+ Amino (NH2) Naming: Amino-*branch name* *Ex: Amino-ethane (sometimes: ethylamine) Imines (NH) - Proline is the only amino acid that is an imine Sulfhydryl (Thiol) -SH - Reducing Disulfide Bridge Phosphate (PO4) - Ex: ATP *Adenine-Ribose-Triphosphate *Triphosphate is a high energy bond Testing for Starch - Use Ludol’s solution (amber color) - Turns solution from clear to blue/black *Can use a spectrometer to measure concentration of the color Testing for Glucose - Use Benedict’s Solution (Copper Sulfate) - Heat   Turns solution from blue-green-brown-red - Copper oxide settles to the bottom (CuSO4   CuO)
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Biological Macromolecules Mechanism of Synthesis - Dehydration Synthesis *Removes H2O *Forms peptide bond between C=O and N (Bond forms where Carbohydrates -CnH2nOn - Energy Molecule - Provides carbon skeleton for Biosynthesis Simple Sugars - Trioses (C3H6O3) - Tetrose (C4H8O4) - Pentose (C5H10O5) *Ex: Ribose - Hexose (C6H12O6) *Basis of polymers - Sedoheptulose (C7H14O7) Haworth Convention (1930s) - When structure is in ring form: *OH on top: Beta (β) *OH on bottom: Alpha (α) Disaccharide - 2 sugar units - Sucrose *Glucose + Fructose - Maltose *α D Glucose + α D Glucose - Lactose * β Galactose + Glucose Β Linkage - Resistant to hydrolysis Galactosemia - Not having the enzyme needed to break down lactose Lactose Intolerant - Enzyme needed fades Polysaccharides - Many sugar units - Two kinds: storage & structural - Storage: *Starch: ^Two kinds: Amylose & Amylopectin ^Amylose = No branches, Amylopectin = Branching (α 1-6 branching) *Glycogen: ^Lots of branches (α 1-6 branching) *Cellulose: ^Not susceptible to hydrolysis ^H-bonds are important for stabilizing ^Only bacteria can digest cellulose
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- Branching enables energy to be released more quickly Glucagon - Hormone that stimulates cells to break down glycogen into  glucose Insulin - Tells cells to take up glycogen Glucose vs. Starch - Glucose is osmosically active, but starch isn’t
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Quest_Biochem1 - GeneralOrganicChemistry: Carbon

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