Test_Biochem

Test_Biochem - General Organic Chemistry: Carbon -...

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General Organic Chemistry: Carbon - Covalently bonds with itself (forms backbone) - Can form double or triple bonds Hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2) - Methane(C1H4) *Non-polar *109.5 degree bond angle - Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8) - Butane (C4H10), n-isobutane - Pentane (C5, H12), Hexane (C6H14) - Chain needs to have 4 or more carbons to form a ring - Once you put sugar into water (starts linear), 93% of it turns cyclic Isomers - Compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements, but different arrangements - Structural Isomers *Differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms - Geometric Isomers (must have a double bond, cis vs. trans) *differ in spatial arrangement Optical/Stereo/Enantiomers - Non-superimposible mirror images Functional Groups: Functional Groups - Substitute for at least one H of a hydrocarbon - Chemical groups that affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions Alcohol (-OH) - Ending: -ol - Methyl Alcohol *AKA: methanol, wood alcohol *Originally made by distilling wood - Ethanol *Produced in fermentation by yeast
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- Polar because electrons spend more time around the electronegative oxygen - Forms H-bonds with water, dissolving sugars Carbonyl (C=O) - Aldehyde (Aldoses) *Ending: -al *Reducing - Ketones (Ketoses) *Ending: -one *Non-reducing Carboxyl (-COOH) - Carboxylic Acid - AKA: Ethanoic Acid - Dissociates into COO- and H+ Amino (NH2) Naming: Amino-*branch name* *Ex: Amino-ethane (sometimes: ethylamine) - Acts as a base Imines (NH) - Proline is the only amino acid that is an imine Sulfhydryl (Thiol) -SH - Reducing Disulfide Bridge *Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming the covalent bond (aka bridge) Phosphate (PO4) - Has the potential to react with water, releasing energy - Ex: ATP *Adenine-Ribose-Triphosphate *Triphosphate is a high energy bond Testing for Starch - Use Ludol’s solution (amber color) - Turns solution from clear to blue/black *Can use a spectrometer to measure concentration of the color Testing for Glucose - Use Benedict’s Solution (Copper Sulfate) - Heat Turns solution from blue-green-brown-red
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- Copper oxide settles to the bottom (CuSO4 CuO) Biological Macromolecules Mechanism of Synthesis - Dehydration Synthesis *Removes H2O *Forms peptide bond between C=O and N (Bond forms where OH & H were) Carbohydrates -CnH2nOn - Includes sugars & polymers of sugars - Energy Molecule - Provides carbon skeleton for Biosynthesis Simple Sugars - Trioses (C3H6O3) - Tetrose (C4H8O4) - Pentose (C5H10O5) *Ex: Ribose, nucleic acids - Hexose (C6H12O6) *Basis of polymers (structural storage), C-skeletons - Sedoheptulose (C7H14O7) Haworth Convention (1930s) - When structure is in ring form: *OH on top: Beta (β) *OH on bottom: Alpha (α) Disaccharide - 2 sugar units joined by a glycosidic linkage - Sucrose *Glucose + Fructose - Maltose *α D Glucose + α D Glucose - Lactose * β Galactose + Glucose
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^β linkage Β Linkage - Resistant to hydrolysis Glycosidic Linkage - A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course BIO 1101 at Cornell.

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Test_Biochem - General Organic Chemistry: Carbon -...

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