S10-FinalReview

S10-FinalReview - BA300 Final Exam Review Richard Gwinn, MD...

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    BA-300 Final Exam Review Richard Gwinn, MD
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    Utilitarianism Decision Rule: Maximize utility ; the greatest good for the greatest number Advantages : A scientific , logical approach Disadvantages: Disregards the means , and can overlook the rights of minorities Clues to look for: Stakeholder analysis Attempt to get the best result for the maximum number of stakeholders
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    Utilitarianism - Behavior A person basing an ethical decision on the principles of Utilitarianism would be expected to demonstrate the following behaviors 1. Identifies the various stakeholders 2. Looks at the outcomes of various alternatives 3. Does not favor any particular group or type of stakeholder 4. Tries to achieve the maximum utility (benefit) for the greatest number of stakeholders
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    Utilitarianism: Example Due to economic conditions, Wayne’s budget has been reduced. He has to make do with less. His options include laying off workers, outsourcing production, a salary reduction, or a reduction in management. He consider all of the stakeholders , and each of his options , analyzing the effect of each solution on each stakeholder group. He decides that the best outcome, which produces the greatest good for the majority , is a reduction in management. Wayne’s reasoning is typical of: a. Objectivism b. Utilitarianism c. The Theory of Justice d. The Theory of Rights e. The Categorical Imperative
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    Nozick: Theory of Rights Decision Rule: No force or fraud Advantages : Complete freedom of action , minimum government intervention Disadvantages: Disregards interests of other stakeholders Clues to look for: No force (coercion, pressure) or fraud (lies, deception) Emphasis on rights of decision-maker
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    Theory of Rights - Behavior A person basing an ethical decision on the Theory of Rights would be expected to demonstrate the following behaviors 1. Focuses on their own rights and benefit 2. May do almost anything they think is in their own interest, as long as it does not involve force or fraud 3. Complete disregard for the interests of other stakeholders 4. May do irrational or harmful things, but as long as they do not involve force or fraud, they are ethical under this theory. 5. Opposes all government intervention, except as necessary to prevent force and fraud.
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    Nozick’s Theory of Rights: Example Mario sells copies of Italian furniture. People pay very high prices for his furniture because it looks like the real thing, even though it is very low quality with regard to both materials and construction. Mario is always careful not to claim that the furniture as the real thing, and he never uses any high pressure sales tactics. He believes that as long as he does not lie to the customer or pressure them to buy the furniture, there is nothing unethical about selling it for three times its actual value. This is reasoning is typical of: a. Objectivism b. Utilitarianism c. The Theory of Justice d. The Theory of Rights e. The Categorical Imperative
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S10-FinalReview - BA300 Final Exam Review Richard Gwinn, MD...

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