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Chapter+1-+student+version - Understanding Human...

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1 Understanding Human Development Chapter 1
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2 Lecture Overview Defining Human Development Lifespan perspective Periods of Development Guiding Themes Research Methods Experimental methods Descriptive/Correlational Methods Research Designs Cross sectional Longitudinal Sequential Issues in Research Experimenter responsibilities
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3 Introduction to Human Development What is Human Development? What is the Life-Span Perspective of Human Development? Guiding Themes of Life-Span Human Development
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4 What is Human Development? The systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb.” Development in three broad domains: - - -
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5 gg Social Development Cognitive Development Physical Development
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6 What is the Life-Span Perspective of Human Development? Examines patterns of change and stability that occur throughout the entire life-span “Womb to Tomb” “Sperm to Worm” Emerged in the 60’s and 70’s Paul Baltes:
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7 Periods of Development Prenatal Period (Conception to birth) Infancy (First 2 years of life) - - - Preschool Period (2 to 6 years) Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years) Adolescence (12 to 20 years) Early adulthood (aka YA; 20 to 40 years) Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Late Adulthood (65 and older) - -
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8 Guiding Themes of Life-Span Human Development 1. Development is a life-long process 2. Development is multi-directional 3. Development involves both gains and losses. 4. Development is characterized by life-long plasticity. 5. Development is shaped by: a. b. 1. Development is multiply influenced. 2. Understanding development requires multiple disciplines. - e.g., Anthropologists, biologists, historians, psychologists, and sociologists (to name a few).
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9 Childhood Before 1600: Children viewed as miniature adults Modern view: Children are innocent and need protection Adulthood Average life expectancy in 1900 was _____ In 2001 = ______ Females: White 80 years, Black 75 years Males: White 75 years, Black 69 years Increasing population age 65 and older Phases of the Life-Span in Historical Context
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10 gg Physical and Biological Sciences (e.g., Chemistry, Biology) Social Sciences (Psychology, Anthropology) Human Development
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11 Growth : Physical changes that occur from birth to maturity Aging: the process of growing old Maturation: the process of maturing Learning: Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences Other Developmental Definitions
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12 Age Grade : Socially defined age groups Statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities Example: Age Norms : Behavioral expectations according to age Example: Social Clock: When in lifespan things should be done Example: “Off time” experiences are more difficult Age Grades, Age Norms, and the Social Clock
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13 Description Normal development, individual differences Explanation Typical and differential human development
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