Chapter+2-+student+version - Theories of Human Development...

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1 Theories of Human Development Chapter 2
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2 Lecture Outline Theories Issues in Human Development Psychoanalytic Theories Learning Theories Cognitive Theories Contextual and Systems Theories
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3 Theory “Our understanding of human development is built out of theories and research findings, just as a house is built out of mortar and stones. But a collection of findings without theory is no more a basis for sound understanding that a heap of stones is a house.” Henri Poincare
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4 Theory What is it? An organized set of ideas designed to describe, explain, and predict development. Where do they come from? observations, past research Why are they helpful? provide organizing framework guide the way research is conducted theory prediction results
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5 What makes a good theory? Parsimonious: “Keep it simple, stupid.” Internally Consistent Falsifiable- Karl Popper Scientifically verified
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6 Theories All have strengths and weaknesses No single theory can explain all aspects of development Some explain a range of behaviors while others focus on specific domains of development Some focus on cognitive development (e.g., Piaget’s) while others (e.g., Freud) emphasize social and emotional development. Some only consider particular points in the lifespan (e.g., Freud) while others take a more holistic view (e.g., Erikson).
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7 Developmental Issues Human Nature Are we inherently good or evil? Nature and Nurture Activity and Passivity Continuity and Discontinuity Universality and Context-Specificity
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8 Developmental Issues- human nature Thomas Hobbes: “inherently evil” Society’s responsibility to teach children how to behave in positive ways
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9 Developmental Issues- human nature Jean Jacques Rosseau: “noble savages” “inherently good” Born with a sense of right/wrong Said would develop fine as long as society did not interfere with their + tendencies Child centered philosophy Parents should be receptive to the child’s needs at each stage of childhood development.
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10 Developmental Issues- human nature John Locke: “tabula rasa” Born neither good nor bad Experiences determine whether develop in + or – directions (nurture!!) Parents= rational tutors Changed parenting styles Children are passive
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11 Developmental Issues Human Nature Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rosseau, John Locke Nature and Nurture How much of who we are and how we develop is due to genetics and how much is due to the environment? Activity and Passivity Continuity and Discontinuity Universality and Context-Specificity
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Developmental Issues Human Nature Nature and Nurture Activity and Passivity Are children passively shaped by influences in their environment which are beyond their control or is the developing child an active, purposeful being who contributes substantially to his/her own development? Continuity and Discontinuity
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2010 for the course PSYCH 2311 taught by Professor Hines during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter+2-+student+version - Theories of Human Development...

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