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Chapter+8-+student+version - Memory and Information...

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1 Memory and Information Processing Chapter 8
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2 Lecture Overview Memory Info processing approach The different memory systems Explicit versus implicit memory The Infant The Child The Adolescent The Adult
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3 Memory Memory is the process by which we observe, store, and recall information
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4 Human Memory: Three Basic Questions How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information pulled back out of memory?
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5 Fig 7.2 – Three key processes in memory. Memory depends on three sequential processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Some theorists have drawn an analogy between these processes and elements of information processing by computers, as depicted here. The analogies for encoding and retrieval work pretty well, but the storage analogy is somewhat misleading. When information is stored on a hard drive, it remains unchanged indefinitely and you can retrieve an exact copy. As you will learn in this chapter, memory storage is a much more dynamic process. Our memories change over time and are rough reconstructions rather than exact copies of past events.
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6 Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention pennies? -focusing awareness Selective attention = selection of input
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7 Levels of Processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) Incoming information processed at different levels: Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels : Structural = shallow Phonemic = intermediate Semantic = deep
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8 Levels-of-processing theory. According to Craik and Lockhart (1972), structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding—which can be elicited by questions such as those shown on the right — involve progressively deeper levels of processing, which should result in more durable memories.
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9 Enhancing Encoding Elaboration - linking a stimulus to other info at time of encoding Visual imagery- the creation of visual images to represent the stimuli to be remembered. the crazier the image the better Abstract more difficult than concrete words Self-Referent encoding- making the material personally relevant better memory
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10 Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Analogy: information storage in computers ~ information storage in human memory Information-processing theories Subdivide memory into 3 different stores Sensory, Short-term, Long-term
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11 Standard Memory Model This metaphor views the “ the mind as a computer” Model assumes that memory consists of 3 stores: Sensory Store, STM, LTM Sensory registers Iconic(visual) Echoic (auditory)
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12 The Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory storage . Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971) proposed that memory is made up of three information stores. Sensory memory can hold information just long enough (a fraction of a second) for a small portion of it to be selected for longer storage. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, and unless aided by rehearsal, its storage duration is brief. Long-term memory can store an apparently unlimited amount of information for indeterminate periods.
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13 The Information Processing Model of Memory
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