HPV paper (final) - Nathan Anderson Human Anatomy &...

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Nathan Anderson Monday 5/12/10 Human Papillomavirus The Human Papillomavirus, HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection, STI, worldwide, with an estimated minimum of 50% of sexually active individuals contracting the disease within their lifetimes (Center for Disease Control). In this paper I will give a introduction covering some general information concerning HPV, provide some statistics on the prevalence among females in the US, present a brief history of how this disease became associated with the increased risk for cervical cancer, discuss its life-cycle and how the oncogenes E6 and E7 override DNA replication checkpoints, testing options available, symptoms, and various medications and prevention options available. HPV is a double-stranded DNA oncogenic virus of the Papovaviridae family of viruses (Tortora 375t). The biggest concern over the disease is its potential for causing genital warts and their ability to transform healthy cells into cancerous cells, most notably leading to cervical cancer in
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women (Tortora 391). Forty types of HPV are known to affect the genitals, mouth, and throat of males and females, and these are all easily spread from person to person passing through small cracks and abrasions in the skin affecting the basal epithelial cells (Center for Disease Control). The fact that an infection can remain contagious for a long period of time before a papilloma, or wart, is present, if it appears at all, and the ease of which this disease is transmitted explains why it is so prevalent. In fact, many infections go unnoticed showing no symptoms, and 90% of infections clear the immune system completely within 2 years. (Center for Disease Control) Known diseases and conditions stemming from HPV include; cancers: cervical, vulva, vagina, penis, anus; warts: genitals, thigh, throat, and throughout the body. The following is a graph presenting the yearly numbers for HPV related cancers. Yearly Numbers for HPV Related Cancers in the US Cervical Cancer Vulvar Cancer Penile Cancer Anal Cancer Neck * Vaginal Cancer Totals Women 12,000 3,700 2,700 2,300 1,000 21,700 Men 1,000 1,700 9,000 11,700 *HPV is associated with head and neck cancers, but most are the result of heavy drinking and smoking. (Center for Disease Control)
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HPV paper (final) - Nathan Anderson Human Anatomy &...

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