Chapter 7 - The Sociology of Sustainable Development

122 the main criticism is that the estab the

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Unformatted text preview: Peril (PiP), for example, which is executed through the Nature Conservancy. The program is designed to enforce park protection. From 1990 to 1997 the program received $14 million from USAID and $5.5 million in matching funds from NGOs and developing nations. The program also promotes ecotourism, such as that in the Ecuadorian “selva” (jungle) in Figure 7.6.116 As noted in Chapter 6, national parks and protected areas have a long history in the United States. The United States currently has over 10 percent of its land under protection. With increased concern over biodiversity loss in the tropics, most of which exist in developing countries, LDCs have established parks at a rapid rate over the last twenty years as a strategy of sustainable development. In addition to protecting biodiversity, officials expect that parks have the economic potential of earning foreign exchange from tourism.117 In 1985, Kenya earned $300 million from wildlife associated tourism.118 According to the World Tourism Organization, tourism is the fastest growing industry in the world.119 Tourism development is a controversial economic strategy;120 nonetheless it is supported by the World Bank and other developers.121 Safaris and other nature specific tourism that are dependent upon protected areas are called “ecotourism.” These tourism programs are meant to be ecologically sound and many believe ecotourism has potential as a sustainable development strategy, though it, too, is criticized.122 The main criticism is that the estab- 251 Photo by T. Lewis. THE SOCIOLOGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FIGURE 7.6 Sacha Lodge in Ecuador’s Amazon Region lishment of parks in the LDCs, while often ecologically and economically sound, has not always been socially sound; ecotourism has not benefited local people. For example, in 1962 the Ugandan government established Kidepo National Park in an area where the nomadic Ik tribe dwelled. Since, by definition, people cannot live in designated national park areas, the Ik were relocated, forbidden to hunt, and were essentially destroyed.123 The cost...
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