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Unformatted text preview: rts attempt to gather stakeholders from communities to
manage lands and recognizes that trade-offs are inevitable. Their goals are to
promote environment, economy, and community; in sum, sustainable development. He provides examples of such groups from Willapa Bay, Washington;
Applegate Valley, Oregon; and Blackfoot River Valley, Montana; among others, all communities that are dependent on “nature’s bounty.” Common among
the author’s writing of successful efforts to promote sustainable development is
a locally based, democratic process that includes collaboration, participation,
negotiation, and compromise.
Finally, we close this chapter with a quote from Leff who argues that Marxist thought and environmental thought can be reconciled. The quote summarizes the hopes of those who believe that alternatives are possible and
Environmental thought can be inscribed within post-Marxist or postmodernist thought. It defends the speciﬁcity of local action (thinking
globally, acting locally), the autonomy of social groups, and difference—
difference in cultural values, and development styles, and options. It presents new ethical values and a new political culture, but at the same time
poses the problem of political efﬁcacy and of the real political power held
by environmental groups. Although the defense of autonomy and local
difference can be seen as part of the struggle against totalitarianism
(against vertical and corporative power structures in traditional political
organizations), it also rules out any universal demand other than one
claiming the legitimacy of all local demands. Nevertheless, the demand
for autonomous spaces as a starting point for the development of alternative local productive projects is part of the larger movement for another
kind of material existence based on the integration of multiple development styles.166
C I TAT I O N S A N D N O T E S
1. WCED, 1987.
2. Haedrich and Hamilton, 2000, p. 359.
3. Pearce et al., 1989.
4. Lélé, 1991, p. 610.
5. Meadows et al., 1972; Schumacher,
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- Fall '08
- The Land