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Unformatted text preview: whose members include all
of the stakeholder groups in the region of interests.”162 The encompassing organization in this case includes all of the groups that have an interest in the
rain forest: “members from ﬁfty Afro-Ecuadorian comunas, the lumber companies, [the government agency in charge of protected areas], the provincial
government, environmental NGOs, and international aid missions with interests in the region.”163 In this arena, trade-offs between the competing goals of
sustainable development are negotiated. For example, community members
must collectively decide to what degree economic gains should outweigh ecological gains and vice versa. One proposal being looked at by the encompassing organization is to attain green certiﬁcation for the wood from the project.
“Selling these woods in the international markets would raise their price. Both
the timber companies and the environmentalists support the proposal.”164 This
project in Esmeraldas shows a process in which trade-offs among the competing goals of sustainable development can lead to better forest conservation and
gains in economic growth. Contrary to radical accounts that external political
and economic influences in ecological matters can be exploitative and destructive, Rudel argues that “outside intervention” helped create the encompassing organization in Esmeraldas that may form the basis of a more THE SOCIOLOGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 261 sustainable development. Communities around Esmeraldas have taken notice
of the project’s success and are taking steps to implement similar plans.
Different forms of organizing for sustainable development are taking place
in the United States, as well. Weber explains the emergence of “hundreds of
rural, place-based, grass-roots ecosystem management (GREM) efforts across
the United States [that] constitutes a new environmental movement.”165 These
groups are akin to the encompassing organizations that Rudel describes in
Ecuador. GREM effo...
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- Fall '08
- The Land