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Unformatted text preview: ctivities of the MDCs’ consumers and capitalists. The focus
also directs attention to population issues. Here, too, USAID assumes that the
cause of environmental problems is the sheer number of people rather than
the way the people produce and consume. Managerial agents operate within
the assumption that continued economic growth is desirable and that only
slight modiﬁcations and incremental changes are necessary to achieve continued growth, and thus, sustainable development. 240 CHAPTER SEVEN Along with aid agencies, international development agents embrace the
concept of sustainable development. Over the last few decades there has been
a gradual “greening” of both bilateral and multilateral development agencies,
including the World Bank.76 In 1992, for example, the World Bank’s annual
report was subtitled “Development and Environment.”77 In the report, the
Bank “strongly endorses”78 the work of the Brundtland Commission for two
reasons: (1) it argues that a degraded environment is antithetical to development; (2) it notes that environmental problems undermine future productivity.
In line with the World Bank’s mission of alleviating global poverty, most of
the programs proposed by the World Bank are framed around what they consider to be the environmental problems of the poor—sanitation, air pollution,
soil erosion, and loss of tropical forests.79 The World Bank also acknowledges
that nations with different income levels produce different types of environmental problems (Figure 7.2). The Bank’s proposed solutions to environmental
problems focus on tactics that they have used to address purely “development”
(without the environment) problems in the past: new technologies, increased
investment, selective debt relief, and reduced population growth, to name a
few. The Bank’s main lines of action to incorporate the environment into its
work include assisting nations in developing environmental policies, incorporating environmental conditions in its lending process,...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2010 for the course SOSCI INBA6610 taught by Professor Prescott during the Fall '08 term at University of the West Indies at St. Augustine.
- Fall '08
- The Land