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Unformatted text preview: zone depletion justifies the MDC’s intervention in the South through the North’s knowledge systems and technologies.107 The imperative question here is sustainable development by whom?
There is a presumed “expertise” in the MDCs that critics would argue is unwarranted since the MDCs are the cause of much damage. One of the main
ways that development agencies propose to help the LDCs, nonetheless, is
through technical expertise, education, and technology transfer.108 This discounts the value of knowledge in the LDCs despite evidence that a number of
indigenous groups have lived more sustainably than we have, that groups have
adapted to changing environments without depleting resources, and that ecological systems must be geographically, culturally, and ecologically speciﬁc.109
Managerial solutions to environmental problems are uncritical of the “global”
and universal constructions of such problems. This managerial approach allows “the factors that lead to global constructions of ecological knowledge to
be privileged over ‘sub-global’ frameworks.”110 Technological transfers from
the LDCs to MDCs rarely occur. “Few Northerners are proposing that Senegalese peasants be allowed to have a say in American energy consumption, or
that Ecuadorian tribal peoples form groups to help protect German forests”111
and “there are no Latin American networks advising how to deal with, say,
Canadian and U.S. Paciﬁc forests.”112
Presumed solutions come from the top down rather than bottom up despite development agencies’ rhetoric regarding the importance of grassroots
organizations, women, and NGOs. Feminist critiques of managerial projects
argue that women are used by development agencies. For example,
The imagery of women as “valuable resources” and “assets” has now
prompted development planners to seriously consider women’s roles in
environmental projects and in virtually all environment-related project
documents there is at least rhetoric about women. . . . [But, for...
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- Fall '08
- The Land