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Unformatted text preview: example,] while they [women] invest their valuable time planting and weeding
tree plantations, they have no legal control over the resources created.
Women rarely beneﬁt from tree planting scheme . . . when the trees are
sold men reap the beneﬁts and get the money. Hence, the imperative for
women’s involvement in environmental projects clashes with the market
orientation propagated in most development projects.113 250 CHAPTER SEVEN The radical critique of managerial sustainable development strategies is summarized by Ekins:
The Northern establishment must recognize its countries’ primary responsibility for the present environmental crisis and determine to take
radical action to address it. . . . The North must further recognize that
current structures of interdependence, of trade, aid and debt, make Southern sustainable development impossible. They must, therefore, embark on
wholesale reform of such institutions as [General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade], the World Bank and [International Monetary Fund].114
Biodiversity Conservation An issue prompting collaboration between national governments, bilateral and
multilateral agencies, and international and local nongovernmental organizations is biodiversity conservation. Conservation is identified as an important
sustainable development strategy. Protecting land preserves biological diversity
and can provide long-term social and economic beneﬁts through sustained resources use and tourism. The World Conservation Union and other agencies
frame land protection as a form of sustainable development in the World Conservation Strategy aforementioned. Since the Strategy, other international actions have linked the conservation of protected areas to sustainable
development and strengthened the World Conservation Strategy. The Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit, for example, is
designed to prevent the “destruction of biological species, habitats and ecosystems.”115 USAID, the World Bank, GEF, and nongovernmental organizations
have all promoted land conservation. USAID funds a program called Parks in...
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- Fall '08
- The Land