Unformatted text preview: s of biodiversity protection are often social, and disproportionately paid by those living closest to biodiversity sites.124 Especially in LDCs,
the local residents are the ones forbidden to cut down trees, grow food, or
raise animals in protected areas. In the United States, since much of the land
under protection has long been protected, there are less dislocations than there
are in LDCs where new protected areas are currently being established. However, those who are dependent on natural resource extraction in the North—
such as the ﬁsher folk in Newfoundland who were forbidden to ﬁsh and the
loggers in the Paciﬁc Northwest banned from logging old growth forests—are
often displaced by biodiversity protection, as well.
Despite these negative examples, humans are becoming more important in
national park planning. Conservation organizations are acutely aware of the
problems associated with limiting human access to lands. Groups like the
World Wildlife Fund and Conservation International have sought ways to integrate the social and ecological systems. The “pure” preservation ideas of
parks has shifted to a vision that includes human development. Newer proj- 252 CHAPTER SEVEN ects, associated specifically with sustainable development efforts, are called
“integrated conservation and development projects.” The theory behind these
projects is that local people are best suited to protect biodiversity when they
are also permitted to use the fruits of biodiversity to survive economically.
The extractive reserve associated with Chico Mendes’ work with Brazilian
rubber tappers, described in Chapter 1, is a good example of an integrated
conservation and development project.125 Other efforts have been made by
international conservation organizations to demonstrate that indigenous people, in particular, have long coexisted with nature and through their traditional knowledge of local ecologies and their land and resource management,
they can provide a path tow...
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- Fall '08
- The Land