Chapter 7 - The Sociology of Sustainable Development

These critics measure the success of international

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Unformatted text preview: n without adequate sanitation Percent 70 60 40 40 20 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) Urban concentrations of particulate matter Micrograms per cubic meter of air 1,800 1,200 600 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) 20 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) Urban concentrations of sulfur dioxide Micrograms per cubic meter of air 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) Municipal wastes per capita Kilograms 600 400 Caron dioxide emissions per capitaa Tons 16 12 8 200 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) 4 0 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Per capita income (dollars, log scale) FIGURE 7.2 Various Indicators for Environment and Development a Emissions are from fossil fuels. NOTE: Estimates are based on cross-country regression analysis of data from the 1980s. SOURCE: World Development Report, 1992, p. 11. Used by permission of Oxford University Press. Despite the promising sound of these projects, many critics attack SD projects on the grounds of the projects’ records of achievement. These critics measure the success of international development agencies on their own terms, in other words, in relation to agencies’ goals. The evidence suggests they are not meeting their goals. Critics argue that both bilateral and multilateral development assistance transferred to the LDCs in the form of loans creates more, not 242 CHAPTER SEVEN Ratio of income shares Richest : Poorest 20% 59:1 20% 45:1 32:1 30:1 1960 1970 1980 1990 FIGURE 7.3 Income Disparity SOURCE: From World Development Report 1992 by World Bank, copyright © 1992 by The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. less, inequality in the LDCs and between nations85 (Figure 7.3). Vandana Shiva summarizes this position. “The old order does not change through environmental discussions, rather it becomes more deeply entrenched.”...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2010 for the course SOSCI INBA6610 taught by Professor Prescott during the Fall '08 term at University of the West Indies at St. Augustine.

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