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Storage and files - Chapter 11 Storage and File Structure...

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Database System Concepts, 5th Ed . ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan See www.db-book.com for conditions on re-use Chapter 11: Storage and File Structure Chapter 11: Storage and File Structure
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©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 11.2 Database System Concepts - 5 th Edition, Oct 23, 2005. Chapter 11: Storage and File Structure Chapter 11: Storage and File Structure Overview of Physical Storage Media Magnetic Disks RAID Tertiary Storage Storage Access File Organization Organization of Records in Files Data-Dictionary Storage Storage Structures for Object-Oriented Databases
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©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 11.3 Database System Concepts - 5 th Edition, Oct 23, 2005. Classification of Physical Storage Media Classification of Physical Storage Media Speed with which data can be accessed Cost per unit of data Reliability data loss on power failure or system crash physical failure of the storage device Can differentiate storage into: volatile storage : loses contents when power is switched off non-volatile storage : Contents persist even when power is switched off. Includes secondary and tertiary storage, as well as batter- backed up main-memory.
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©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 11.4 Database System Concepts - 5 th Edition, Oct 23, 2005. Physical Storage Media Physical Storage Media Cache – fastest and most costly form of storage; volatile; managed by the computer system hardware. Main memory : fast access (10s to 100s of nanoseconds; 1 nanosecond = 10 –9 seconds) generally too small (or too expensive) to store the entire database capacities of up to a few Gigabytes widely used currently Capacities have gone up and per-byte costs have decreased steadily and rapidly (roughly factor of 2 every 2 to 3 years) Volatile — contents of main memory are usually lost if a power failure or system crash occurs.
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©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 11.5 Database System Concepts - 5 th Edition, Oct 23, 2005. Physical Storage Media (Cont.) Physical Storage Media (Cont.) Flash memory Data survives power failure Data can be written at a location only once, but location can be erased and written to again Can support only a limited number (10K – 1M) of write/erase cycles. Erasing of memory has to be done to an entire bank of memory Reads are roughly as fast as main memory But writes are slow (few microseconds), erase is slower Cost per unit of storage roughly similar to main memory Widely used in embedded devices such as digital cameras Is a type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
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©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 11.6 Database System Concepts - 5 th Edition, Oct 23, 2005. Physical Storage Media (Cont.) Physical Storage Media (Cont.) Magnetic-disk Data is stored on spinning disk, and read/written magnetically Primary medium for the long-term storage of data; typically stores entire database.
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