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stats3 - Monday August 30 POLS4150 RESEARCH METHODS IN...

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Monday, August 30 http://emwilk.myweb.uga.edu/POLS4150.html Course Webpage: POLS4150 – RESEARCH METHODS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE (90595) Units of Analysis / Levels of Analysis. Types of Variables / Levels of Measurement.
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Units of Analysis Units of Analysis: who / what are our observations? Level of Analysis: individual (micro) or aggregate (macro)? …may depend on… Many hypotheses (H) can be tested with different units depending upon the level of analysis: Ex: General H: Education increases turnout
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Levels of Analysis – individual (micro) level Behavior of the individual is observed Unit of Analysis John 14 Yes Jack 22 Yes Kate 16 No Sawyer 11 No Juliet 20 Yes Turnout General H: Education increases turnout Specific H: Likelihood to turnout increases as yrs of education increases Education (yrs) Levels of Analysis Units of Analysis: Individuals Independent variable: yrs of education Dependent variable: Voter turnout
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Levels of Analysis – aggregated (macro) level Individual level behavior is aggregated & studied at the macro level Unit of Analysis GA 48% 61% NY 58% 58% VA 63% 68% MN 60% 78% AZ 43% 56% Turnout % General H: Education increases turnout Specific H: States higher PCT of college grads have higher turnout % College grads Levels of Analysis Units of Analysis: states Independent variable - % college graduates Dependent variable: Voter turnout
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Units of Analysis / observation Ecological fallacy – drawing conclusions about individual behavior based on aggregate data Hypothesis: strength of partisanship increases the likelihood to vote. Observable implication: counties with a higher % of strong partisans should have higher levels of turnout. This approach can result in an ecological fallacy
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Units of Analysis / observation County 1 Strong partisans Others # in C 1 20 80 # voting 20 40 % turnout 100% 50% N = 100 60% County 2 Strong partisans Others # in C 2 40 60 # voting 30 20 % turnout 75% 33% N = 100 50%
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Units of Analysis Handout 1. As years of formal education increases, so does income Dependent Variable: Independent Variable: Unit of Analysis: Income Education Depends on level of measurement Individual – individuals Aggregate – states, counties, countries, ect.
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Units of Analysis Handout 2. An incumbent’s expected vote share decreases as challenger spending increases. Dependent Variable: Independent Variable: Unit of Analysis: Incumbent’s vote share Challenger spending Incumbents running for office
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Units of Analysis Handout 3. Periods of divided government lead to legislative gridlock. Dependent Variable: Independent Variable: Unit of Analysis: Gridlock (how would you measure this?) Partisan control of government Time (years, sessions of Congress)
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Units of Analysis Handout 4. International disputes over territory tend to be more severe than other disputes Dependent Variable: Independent Variable: Unit of Analysis: Severity of dispute Reason for dispute International disputes (India vs. Pakistan; Somalia vs. Ethiopia)
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Units of Analysis Handout 5. As a nation’s level of affluence increases, so does the likelihood that it can be categorized as a democracy Dependent Variable: Independent Variable: Unit of Analysis: Level of Democracy (how would you measure this?) Level of affluence nation-states
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